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The photothermal experiments on the incident light angle dependence are carried out using simulated solar light on thin films of both iron oxides (Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@Cu2-xS) and porphyrin compounds (chlorophyll and chlorophyllin). Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@Cu2-xS are synthesized using various solution methods that produce mono-dispersed nanoparticles on the order of 10 nm. Chlorophyll is extracted from fresh spinach and chlorophyllin sodium copper is a commercial product. These photothermal (PT) materials are dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solutions and deposited on glass substrates via spin coating that result in clear and transparent thin films. The iron-oxide based thin films show distinctive absorption spectra; Fe3O4 exhibits a strong peak near UV and gradually decreases into the visible and NIR regions; the absorption of Fe3O4@Cu2-xS is similar in the UV region but shows a broad absorption in the NIR region. Both chlorophyll and chlorophyllin are characterized with absorption peaks near UV and NIR showing a “U”-shaped spectrum, ideally required for efficient solar harvest and high transparency in energy-efficient single-pane window applications. Upon coating of the transparent PT films on the window inner surfaces, solar irradiation induces the photothermal effect, consequently raising the film temperature. In this fashion, the thermal loss through the window can be significantly lowered by reducing the temperature difference between the window inner surface and the room interior, based on a new concept of so-called optical thermal insulation (OTI) without any intervention medium, such as air/argon, as required in the glazing technologies. Single-panes are therefore possible to replace double- or triple panes. As OTI is inevitably affected by seasonal and daily sunlight changes, an incident light angle dependence of the photothermal effect is crucial in both thin film and window designs. It is found that the heating curves reach their maxima at small angles of incidence while the photothermal effect is considerably reduced at large angles. This angle dependence is well explained by light reflection by the thin film surface, however, deviated from what is predicted by the Fresnel's law, attributable to non-ideal surfaces of the substrates. The angle dependence data provide an important reference for OTI that window exposure to the sun is greater at winter solstice while that is considerably reduced in the summer. This conclusion indicates much enhanced solar harvesting and heat conversion via optically insulated windows in the winter season, resulting in much lower U-factors.
To assess the nutritional quality of student canteen purchases at recess and lunch, including: (i) the mean energy (kilojoules), saturated fat (grams), total sugar (grams) and Na (milligrams) and percentage of energy from saturated fat and total sugar; and (ii) the proportion and types of foods purchased that are healthier (green) and less healthy (amber/red) according to a state school canteen policy.
A cross-sectional study of student canteen food and beverage recess and lunch purchases.
Twenty-six randomly selected government primary schools that were non-compliant with a state school canteen policy from a region of New South Wales, Australia, were approached to participate.
Students (aged 5–12 years) of participating schools.
Eighteen schools (69 %) consented to participate. On average students’ recess purchases contained 571·2 kJ energy, 1·6 g saturated fat, 11·6 g total sugar and 132·4 mg Na with 10·0 % of energy from saturated fat and 37·8 % of energy from total sugar. Students’ lunch purchases contained 685·4 kJ energy, 1·8 g saturated fat, 12·7 g total sugar and 151·4 mg Na with 9·5 % of energy from saturated fat and 31·8 % of energy from total sugar. Less healthy items represented 72 and 76 % of all items purchased at recess and lunch, respectively, with ‘savoury snacks’ and ‘sugar-sweetened ice blocks and slushies’ being the most common recess and lunch purchases, respectively.
There is considerable scope to improve the nutritional quality of student purchases from primary-school canteens, with a high percentage of energy from total sugar. Future research is required to identify effective strategies to enhance compliance with canteen policies and support the purchase of healthier foods from school canteens.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
The initial classic Fontan utilising a direct right atrial appendage to pulmonary artery anastomosis led to numerous complications. Adults with such complications may benefit from conversion to a total cavo-pulmonary connection, the current standard palliation for children with univentricular hearts.
A single institution, retrospective chart review was conducted for all Fontan conversion procedures performed from July, 1999 through January, 2017. Variables analysed included age, sex, reason for Fontan conversion, age at Fontan conversion, and early mortality or heart transplant within 1 year after Fontan conversion.
A total of 41 Fontan conversion patients were identified. Average age at Fontan conversion was 24.5 ± 9.2 years. Dominant left ventricular physiology was present in 37/41 (90.2%) patients. Right-sided heart failure occurred in 39/41 (95.1%) patients and right atrial dilation was present in 33/41 (80.5%) patients. The most common causes for Fontan conversion included atrial arrhythmia in 37/41 (90.2%), NYHA class II HF or greater in 31/41 (75.6%), ventricular dysfunction in 23/41 (56.1%), and cirrhosis or fibrosis in 7/41 (17.1%) patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 6.2 ± 4.9 years. Survival rates at 30 days, 1 year, and greater than 1-year post-Fontan conversion were 95.1, 92.7, and 87.8%, respectively. Two patients underwent heart transplant: the first within 1 year of Fontan conversion for heart failure and the second at 5.3 years for liver failure.
Fontan conversion should be considered early when atrial arrhythmias become common rather than waiting for severe heart failure to ensue, and Fontan conversion can be accomplished with an acceptable risk profile.
We investigated human understanding of different network visualizations in a large-scale online experiment. Three types of network visualizations were examined: node-link and two different sorting variants of matrix representations on a representative social network of either 20 or 50 nodes. Understanding of the network was quantified using task time and accuracy metrics on questions that were derived from an established task taxonomy. The sample size in our experiment was more than an order of magnitude larger (N = 600) than in previous research, leading to high statistical power and thus more precise estimation of detailed effects. Specifically, high statistical power allowed us to consider modern interaction capabilities as part of the evaluated visualizations, and to evaluate overall learning rates as well as ambient (implicit) learning. Findings indicate that participant understanding was best for the node-link visualization, with higher accuracy and faster task times than the two matrix visualizations. Analysis of participant learning indicated a large initial difference in task time between the node-link and matrix visualizations, with matrix performance steadily approaching that of the node-link visualization over the course of the experiment. This research is reproducible as the web-based module and results have been made available at: https://osf.io/qct84/.
Although federal regulation of vehicle fuel economy is often seen as environmental policy, over 70% of the estimated benefits of the 2017–2025 federal standards are savings in consumer expenditures on gasoline. Rational-choice economists question the counting of these benefits since studies show that the fuel efficiency of a car is reflected in its price at sale and resale. We contribute to this debate by exploring why most consumers in the United States do not purchase a proven fuel-saving innovation: the hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV). A database of 110 vehicle pairs is assembled where a consumer can choose a hybrid or gasoline version of virtually the same vehicle. Few choose the HEV. A total cost of ownership model is used to estimate payback periods for the price premiums associated with the HEV choice. In a majority of cases, a rational-choice explanation is sufficient to understand consumer disinterest in the HEV. However, in a significant minority of cases, a rational-choice explanation is not readily apparent, even when non-pecuniary attributes (e.g., performance and cargo space) are considered. Future research should examine, from a behavioral economics perspective, why consumers do not choose HEVs when pricing and payback periods appear to be favorable.
Strong strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures has great potential for different high-frequency multiferroic devices. In this article, we present the most recent progress in integrated multiferroic devices. Integrated magnetic tunable inductors with a wide operation frequency range, integrated nonreciprocal bandpass filters with dual magnetic and electric-field tunability based on magnetostatics surface waves, and novel radio-frequency nanomechanical ME resonators with pico-Tesla sensitivity for direct current magnetic fields are presented. Finally, a new antenna miniaturization mechanism, acoustically actuated nanomechanical ME antennas, which can successfully miniaturize the size by 1–2 orders, is introduced. With the advantages of high magnetic field sensitivity, highest antenna gain among all nanoscale antennas at similar frequency, integrated capability with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, and ground-plane immunity from metallic surfaces and the human body, ME antennas have a bright future for biomedical applications, wearable antennas, and the Internet of Things due to their unique and particular properties.
There is increasing evidence for shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although genetic variants only convey subtle increases in risk individually, their combination into a polygenic risk score constitutes a strong disease predictor.
To investigate whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores can distinguish people with broadly defined psychosis and their unaffected relatives from controls.
Using the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium data, we calculated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores for 1168 people with psychosis, 552 unaffected relatives and 1472 controls.
Patients with broadly defined psychosis had dramatic increases in schizophrenia and bipolar polygenic risk scores, as did their relatives, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the accuracy of predictive models was modest.
Although polygenic risk scores are not ready for clinical use, it is hoped that as they are refined they could help towards risk reduction advice and early interventions for psychosis.
Declaration of interest
R.M.M. has received honoraria for lectures from Janssen, Lundbeck, Lilly, Otsuka and Sunovian.
To (i) describe the proportion of foods and beverages available on school canteen menus classified as having high (‘green’), moderate (‘amber’) or low (‘red’) nutritional value; (ii) describe the proportion of these items purchased by students; and (iii) examine the association between food and beverage availability on school canteen menus and food and beverage purchasing by students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT).
A nested sample of fifty randomly selected government schools from the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, who had participated in an RCT of an intervention to improve the availability of healthy foods sold from school canteens, was approached to participate.
School principals, canteen managers and students.
The average proportion of green, amber and red items available on menus was 47·9, 47·4 and 4·7 %, respectively. The average proportion of green, amber and red items purchased by students was 30·1, 61·8 and 8·1 %, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between the availability and purchasing of green (R2=0·66), amber (R2=0·57) and red menu items (R2=0·61). In each case, a 1 % increase in the availability of items in these categories was associated with a 1·21, 1·35 and 1·67 % increase in purchasing of items of high, moderate and low nutritional value, respectively.
The findings provide support for school-based policies to improve the relative availability of healthy foods for sale in these settings.
Hospitals may implement admission screening cultures and may review transfer documentation to identify patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) to implement isolation precautions; however, outcomes and logistical considerations have not been well described.
At an academic hospital in Chicago, we retrospectively studied the implementation and outcomes of CRE admission screening from 2013 to 2016 during 2 periods. During period 1, we implemented active CRE rectal culture screening for all adults patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) and for those transferred from outside facilities to general wards. During period 2, screening was restricted only to adults transferred from outside facilities. For a subset of transferred patients who were previously reported to the health department as CRE positive, we reviewed transfer paperwork for appropriate documentation of CRE.
Overall, 11,757 patients qualified for screening; rectal cultures were performed for 8,569 patients (73%). Rates of CRE screen positivity differed by period, previous facility type (if transferred), and current inpatient location. A higher combined CRE positivity rate was detected in the medical and surgical ICUs among period 2 patients (3.3%) versus all other ward-period comparisons (P<.001). Among 13 transferred patients previously known to be CRE colonized, appropriate CRE transfer documentation was available for only 4 patients (31%).
Active screening for CRE is feasible, and screening patients transferred from outside facilities to the medical or surgical ICU resulted in the highest screen positivity rate. Furthermore, CRE carriage was inconsistently documented in transfer paperwork, suggesting that admission screening or enhanced inter-facility communication are needed to improve the identification of CRE-colonized patients.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can differentiate into bone cells when provided the correct environment, potentially generating cells to repair non-union fractures. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a biocompatible polymer for 3-D printing of scaffolds, but DPSCs do not proliferate well on PLA. With the goal of making PLA more conducive for DPSC growth, Graphene Oxide (GO); partially reduced Graphene Oxide (pRGO); GO with iron nanoparticles (FeGO) or Fe-pRGO were incorporated into PLA and spun cast as thin films onto silicon wafers for DPSC plating. DPSCs on Fe-pRGO displayed the fastest doubling time and the highest cell modulus; Fe-pRGO with exterior magnets produced high cell density. SEM demonstrated DPSC mineralization, whereas PLA-only DPSC cultures showed none. Results suggest that PLA/Fe-pRGO and PLA/pRGO enhance DPSC proliferation and possibly differentiation with the potential for use as a 3-D printed scaffold for tissue engineering.
Evidence suggests that improvements to the childcare nutrition environment can have a positive impact on child dietary intake. The primary aim of the present study was to assess, relative to usual care, the effectiveness of a multi-strategy implementation intervention in improving childcare compliance with nutrition guidelines. As a secondary aim, the impact on child dietary intake was assessed.
Parallel-group, randomised controlled trial design. The 6-month intervention was designed to overcome barriers to implementation of the nutrition guidelines that had been identified by applying the theoretical domains framework.
Hunter New England region, New South Wales, Australia.
Forty-five centre-based childcare services.
There were no differences between groups in the proportion of services providing food servings (per child) compliant with nutrition guideline recommendations for all five (5/5) food groups at follow-up (i.e. full compliance). Relative to control services, intervention services were more likely to be compliant with guidelines (OR; 95 % CI) in provision of fruit (10·84; 1·19, 551·20; P=0·0024), meat and meat alternatives (8·83; 1·55, –; P=0·023), dairy (8·41; 1·60, 63·62; P=0·006) and discretionary foods (17·83; 2·15, 853·73; P=0·002). Children in intervention services consumed greater servings (adjusted difference; 95 % CI) of fruit (0·41; 0·09, 0·73; P=0·014) and vegetables (0·70; 0·33, 1·08; P<0·001).
Findings indicate that service-level changes to menus in line with dietary guidelines can result in improvements to children’s dietary intake. The study provides evidence to advance implementation research in the setting as a means of enhancing child public health nutrition.
The integration of dissimilar materials is highly desirable for many different types of device applications but often challenging to achieve in practice. The unrivalled imaging capabilities of the aberration-corrected electron microscope enable enhanced insights to be gained into the atomic arrangements across heterostructured interfaces. This paper provides an overview of our recent observations of oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field and large-angle bright-field imaging modes. The perovskite oxides studied include strontium titanate, barium titanate, and strontium hafnate, which were grown on Si(001) and/or Ge(001) substrates using the techniques of molecular-beam epitaxy or atomic-layer deposition. The oxide layers displayed excellent crystallinity and sharp, abrupt interfaces were observed with no sign of any amorphous interfacial layers. The Ge(001) substrate surfaces invariably showed both 1× and 2× periodicity consistent with preservation of the 2 × 1 surface reconstruction following oxide growth. Overall, the results augur well for the future development of functional oxide-based devices integrated on semiconductor substrates.
This study describes findings of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on environmental factors including power outages, air quality, water quality, and weather factors and how these affected mental health during the hurricane.
An ecological study was conducted at the county level to describe changes in environmental factors—especially power outages—and their relationships to emergency department (ED) visits for mental health problems by use of a Poisson regression model.
We found that many environmental hazards occurred as co-exposures during Hurricane Sandy in addition to flooding. Mental health ED visits corresponded with the peak of maximum daily power blackouts, with a 3-day lag, and were positively associated with power blackouts in Bronx (prevalence ratio [PR]: 8.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–61.42) and Queens (PR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.05–5.82) counties. A possible dose-response relationship was found between the quantile of maximum blackout percentage and the risk of mental health in the Bronx.
We found that multiple co-environmental hazards occurred during Hurricane Sandy, especially power blackouts that mediated this disaster’s impacts. The effects of power outage on mental health had large geographic variations and were substantial, especially in communities with low sociodemographic status. These findings may provide new insights for future disaster response and preparedness efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:314–319)
We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20–30 m s−1 on our survey targets.