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Through this book, upper undergraduate mathematics majors will master a challenging yet rewarding subject, and approach advanced studies in algebra, number theory and geometry with confidence. Groups, rings and fields are covered in depth with a strong emphasis on irreducible polynomials, a fresh approach to modules and linear algebra, a fresh take on Gröbner theory, and a group theoretic treatment of Rejewski's deciphering of the Enigma machine. It includes a detailed treatment of the basics on finite groups, including Sylow theory and the structure of finite abelian groups. Galois theory and its applications to polynomial equations and geometric constructions are treated in depth. Those interested in computations will appreciate the novel treatment of division algorithms. This rigorous text 'gets to the point', focusing on concisely demonstrating the concept at hand, taking a 'definitions first, examples next' approach. Exercises reinforce the main ideas of the text and encourage students' creativity.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
This trial examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effect sizes of clinical outcomes of an intervention that combines inhibitory control training (ICT) and implementation intentions (if-then planning) to target binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology.
Seventy-eight adult participants with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder were randomly allocated to receive food-specific, or general, ICT and if-then planning for 4 weeks.
Recruitment and retention rates at 4 weeks (97.5% and 79.5%, respectively) met the pre-set cut-offs. The pre-set adherence to the intervention was met for the ICT sessions (84.6%), but not for if-then planning (53.4%). Binge eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology decreased in both intervention groups at post-intervention (4 weeks) and follow-up (8 weeks), with moderate to large effect sizes. There was a tendency for greater reductions in binge eating frequency and eating disorders psychopathology (i.e. larger effect sizes) in the food-specific intervention group. Across both groups, ICT and if-then planning were associated with small-to-moderate reductions in high energy-dense food valuation (post-intervention), food approach (post-intervention and follow-up), anxiety (follow-up), and depression (follow-up). Participants indicated that both interventions were acceptable.
The study findings reveal that combined ICT and if-then planning is associated with reductions in binge eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology and that the feasibility of ICT is promising, while improvements to if-then planning condition may be needed.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
John Stuart Mill is remembered today primarily for his views on freedom both in its negative form (privacy) and in its affirmative form (self-expression). But there is a third important aspect of his thought for which he is, unjustly, seldom remembered at all. Mill was a true egalitarian – and in the modern sense of that word “equality.” It was Mill who began to harmonize liberty and equality in a way that led to the modern progressive synthesis of the two values. It was Mill, moreover, who was an impassioned critic of slavery, racism and gender discrimination – at a time when these views were neither popular (even among the intelligentsia) nor considered part of the panoply of “liberal” positions. It was Mill who began to make equality an integral part of liberalism rather than a value in tension with liberty, as classical liberals had seen it.
When the Supreme Court overruled Lochner and its progeny, it did not – for long, at least – discontinue using the Due Process clause and other constitutional provisions to protect un-enumerated constitutional rights. Within a few years it began to work out the contours of a new conception of personal freedom, one with very different social and political ramifications than the older, classical liberal ideal exemplified by Lochner. Central to the more recent idea of liberty is the notion of expressive self-individuation. When expressed in constitutional terms, this ideal has three dimensions: First, there must be an individual realm which is, as much as possible, free from governmental and social influences – a realm of privacy in which the individual can “become himself” and live the kind of life he or she wishes. Second, the individual must be free to express his ideas, opinions, thoughts and – in the deepest sense – himself in the non-private sphere.
If Mill is insufficiently credited for the influence he has had on the right to privacy, he is generally acknowledged as one of the premier architects of our modern understanding of freedom of speech. Chapter 2 of On Liberty, entitled “Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion,” is widely acknowledged as the single most influential defense of a capaciously generous theory of freedom of speech and press anywhere in modern liberal political thought. No one has influenced the development of modern First Amendment freedom of speech as deeply or as broadly as has Mill.
This chapter is intended as an introduction to constitutional history for those readers who are not lawyers, though it may also serve as a review for those who are. It seeks to explain the evolution of our current understanding of constitutional rights and to place our constitutional tradition in the broader framework of the liberal tradition.
The cemetery Saint Veran in Avignon, France is a twenty minute walk outside the walls of the old city, a short distance from the palace of the fourteenth century popes and the river Rhone. Toward the back of the cemetery, inauspiciously nestled among the markers and mausoleums, stands a sepulchre of flawless white Carrara marble – the only one in sight without a trace of religious symbolism. It was here that John Stuart Mill buried his wife of seven years, Harriet Taylor Mill, after she succumbed to what Mill called “the family disease” – tuberculosis – in November, 1858. There is an old legend that the cottage Mill purchased after her death, overlooked the cemetery and that Mill could look upon Harriet’s grave from his window. The legend is, as the cemetery caretaker described to me, “finely formed, but not fully true.” The cottage was actually about a ten minute walk from the cemetery.
John Stuart Mill was born in London on May 20, 1806. He was born into one of the most influential intellectual circles of all time. His father, James Mill, was a close friend and collaborator with Jeremy Bentham, the apostle of utilitarianism. Bentham was already famous, having published his An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, the groundwork for utilitarianism, during the 1780s. James Mill himself would later gain fame for writing important books on economics, the theory of mind and a history of India. Their intimate circle included such luminaries as the economist, David Ricardo, who had been a neighbor of the Mills, and John Austin, the first important legal positivist in the Anglo-American tradition.
By the time Mill published On Liberty in 1859, liberalism in its “classical” form had existed for well more than a century. Scholars usually trace the origins of classical liberalism to John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government, published anonymously in 1690, and such other works as his three Letters on Toleration. In the Second Treatise, Locke defended limited government, individual rights to life, liberty and property, religious toleration, a free market and popular sovereignty – themes that soon assumed a central role in the classical liberal tradition.
In contrast to John Rawls, Richard Rorty and other important contemporary liberal philosophers who have tried to build a wall of separation between politics and philosophy, Mill thought that our political and economic conclusions had to rest on a firm philosophical foundation. One’s worldview mattered to one’s politics. This is why he had written his System of Logic first – to lay the foundation for what he thought would come later. In this respect, at least, Mill was closer to Aristotle than to Rawls.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.