To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In today’s global business environment teams are fast becoming the norm. Collaboration is an essential factor in leveraging team effectiveness, and organizations are looking for strategies to increase collaboration among their teams. In this study, we administered an eSurvey to 308 professionals working in face-to-face and virtual teams to investigate emotional intelligence and strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results as strategies to support the collaborative process. Results found the regression of collaboration on emotional intelligence (controlling for age, ethnicity, and education) was significant (p<.01). Results also found a significant indirect effect between emotional intelligence and collaboration as mediated by strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (β=0.110, Z=2.444). We focus on understanding the effect of emotional intelligence on team collaboration as mediated by strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results. Recommendations are provided for increasing emotional intelligence and strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results among team members. Our research has important implications for teams and their pervasive use in business.
Part of Robert T. Leiper's (1881–1969) lasting legacy in medical helminthology is grounded on his pioneering work on schistosomiasis (Bilharzia). Having undertaken many expeditions to the tropics, his fascination with parasite life cycles typically allowed him to devise simple preventive measures that curtailed transmission. Building on his formative work with others in Africa and Asia, and again in Egypt in 1915, he elucidated the life cycles of African schistosomes. His mandate, then commissioned by the British War Office, was to prevent and break transmission of this disease in British troops. This he did by raising standing orders based on simple water hygiene measures. Whilst feasible in military camp settings, today their routine implementation is sadly out of reach for millions of Africans living in poverty. Whilst we celebrate the centenary of Leiper's research we draw attention to some of his lesser known colleagues, then focus on schistosomiasis in Uganda discussing why expanded access to treatment with praziquantel is needed now. Looking to WHO 2020 targets for neglected tropical diseases, we introduce COUNTDOWN, an implementation research consortium funded by DFID, UK, which fosters the scale-up of interventions and confirm the current relevance of Leiper's original research.
We describe the efficacy of enhanced infection control measures, including those recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2012 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) toolkit, to control concurrent outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB).
Before-after intervention study.
Fifteen-bed surgical trauma intensive care unit (ICU).
We investigated the impact of enhanced infection control measures in response to clusters of CPE and XDR-AB infections in an ICU from April 2009 to March 2010. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of blaKPC and resistance plasmids in CRE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess XDR-AB clonality. Enhanced infection-control measures were implemented in response to ongoing transmission of CPE and a new outbreak of XDR-AB. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the incidence rate (IR) of CPE and XDR-AB before and after the implementation of these measures.
The IR of CPE for the 12 months before the implementation of enhanced measures was 7.77 cases per 1,000 patient-days, whereas the IR of XDR-AB for the 3 months before implementation was 6.79 cases per 1,000 patient-days. All examined CPE shared endemic blaKPC resistance plasmids, and 6 of the 7 XDR-AB isolates were clonal. Following institution of enhanced infection control measures, the CPE IR decreased to 1.22 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P = .001), and no more cases of XDR-AB were identified.
Use of infection control measures described in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2012 CRE toolkit was associated with a reduction in the IR of CPE and an interruption in XDR-AB transmission.
Alligatorweed, waterhyacinth, and hydrilla are three nonnative aquatic species of concern in the Ross Barnett Reservoir near Jackson, MS. Point-intercept surveys were conducted on the reservoir from 2005 to 2010 to monitor native and nonnative species' distributions and assess herbicide treatment efficacy across the reservoir. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and diquat were made during summer months for emergent and free-floating vegetation, whereas submersed applications of liquid copper and granular fluridone were applied in spring and late summer for subsurface hydrilla populations. American lotus is the native species that has been observed the most throughout the survey years, with occurrence frequencies averaging between 17 and 27%. Alligatorweed populations significantly decreased from 21% in 2005 to 4% in 2006; however, they consistently increased in the next 4 yr to 12% occurrence in 2010. Waterhyacinth occurrence has remained relatively constant over the study period, averaging below 10% occurrence. Hydrilla was discovered in the reservoir in late 2005 and has remained below 2% in frequency of occurrence since 2006. Suppression of these nonnative species has been attributed to rigorous monitoring and herbicide applications conducted on the reservoir since 2005. A logistic regression model indicated that as native species richness increased, the likelihood of a nonnative species occurring also increased.
Raman scattering measurements in alkali—fullerene alloys in ultrathin and thin films provide evidence for variations in electron—phonon coupling. For x — 3similar behavior of Rb3 C60 films of different thickness support substantial electron—phonon induced damping of specific Hg(i) modes derived from intramolecular modes of C60. In 400A thick films a reduction of induced scattering from Raman inactive C60 modes substantiates the importance ofHg(2), but not Hg(3) modes for phonon—mediated superconductivity. In contrast to RbxC60 and KxC60 ultrathin film solid solutions, similar Raman spectra for NaxC60 indicate substantially reduced coupling consistent with the absence of superconductivity in this system.
We report on the preparation of C60/C70 by the arc method. Evidence of monofunctional C60O, and C60-CH2 has been observed by mass spectrometry. Dependent on their preparation conditions, high resolution transmission electron microscopy of crystals consisting of mixtures of C60/C70 show different structure. Needle-like crystals grown from toluene show superlattice formation while single crystals obtained by sublimation have fcc structure. UV-VIS-absorption spectra in toluene are compared to those of films of various thickness and crystallinity.
To investigate some of the fundamental differences between halogen and hydrogen assisted diamond film growth we have performed several calculations related to the <100> diamond surface. The models used in these investigations include ten-layer periodic slabs of free standing fluorinated diamond films as well as isolated clusters [C21F6H20]. For purposes of comparison, we have also performed calculations on models of the hydrogenated <100> surface. The calculations are performed within the density-functional framework using LCAO and LAPW computational methods. We have considered two geometries of a monofluoride surface. The first surface, best described as an ideal l×l surface with a monolayer of ionically bonded fluorines, exhibits a metallic density of states in contrast to a 2×l reconstructed surface with chemically bonded fluorines that is found to be insulating. We compare theoretical carbon core level shifts with experimental values and discuss growth models based on these surface calculations.
Thermal fatigue resistance of carbon-carbon composites with three different fiber surface treatments is studied in thermal cycles between 100 °C and 1,700 °C up to a number of cycles of 100 in free and restricted expansion conditions. The effects of thermal cycles were studied by SEM paying attention especially to structural damage and interfacial debonding between fibers and matrix. Bending tests subsequent to 10 thermal cycles were used to study the effect of thermal cycling on mechanical properties of the composites. The effect depends on the surface treatment of fibers prior to pyrolization. In some cases, the bending strength decreased due to the thermal cycling, whereas a suitable surface treatment minimized the damaging effect and increased the pseudo-ductility of the composite.
The early stages of the microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond on fused silica and silicon substrates were examined with Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Grain size as a function of time was determined for both substrates. Grains formed on fused silica were larger, with smoother growth surfaces than those formed on silicon substrates under the same conditions. For deposition on silica, the particle morphology changes from cuboid to cubo-octahedral for deposition times between 5 and 15 minutes. Also, the glass surfaces were etched during the pretreatment and deposition stages. These results are discussed in terms of mass transport limited growth, and chemical interactions between the gas-phase and the substrate surface.
The dimensionless electron-phonon coupling parameter in alkali metal-doped fullerenes isevaluated in a model whereby the electrons are treated within a tight binding formalism.The phonon mode frequencies and eigenvectors are obtained from a lattice dynamical modelwhich accurately fits all available experimental data on these modes. It is shown that the electrormphonon interaction can account for the relatively high values of the superconducting transition temperatures in alkali-metal fullerenes.
Molecular cluster calculations within the local density approximation have been performed in a study of the electronic structure of the C60 molecule - “Buckminsterfullerene” doped with K, B and N. Calculations for the KC60 molecule, with the K atom located at the centre of the cage as well as at different positions inside or outside the cage, show how the valence 4s electron is transferred to the LUMO state of the bare C60 molecule. Doping with a B or N atom located at the centre of the cage creates a molecule with a partly occupied level of 2p character in the HOMO and LUMO gap, similar to donor and acceptor levels in the band gap of traditionally doped semiconductors. Doping by substitution of one or two of the carbon atoms in the cage with X = B or N, as modelled with the C59 X1 or C58X2 clusters, gives a different structure with a splitting of the HOMO and LUMO levels in the pure C60 molecule and with the creation of acceptor and donor levels with the substitution of B and N, respectively.
The early stages of a gas phase pretreatment for diamond nucleation in an oxy-acetylene flame were investigated. The pretreatment involved a low oxygen-to-acetylene ratio (Rf = 0.93) performed at 15 mm from the torch on a scratched Si substrate. The nature of the carbon species deposited was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pretreatment process produced diamond crystals after 30 seconds and a complete film in the center of the deposition area after 180 seconds. Furthermore, the pretreatment process kept the initial Siob2 layer less than the thickness generated by the control conditions, (Rf = 0.97, d = 10mm). The success of the pretreatment was attributed to changes in the flame structure and chemistry from the control conditions.
Commercially available carbon black contains oxygen complexes on its surface that affect the surface properties of the carbon. Water adsorption on the surface of carbon black is influenced by the amount and type of oxygen complexes present. When carbon black is heated in vacuum at sufficiently high temperatures, removal of the oxygen complexes occurs and the surface of the carbon particles is modified. The amount of water adsorbed by the carbon is dependent on the vacuum heat treatment temperature. As the heat treatment temperature increases, water adsorption on the carbon decreases.
Commercially available electrically conductive carbon black adsorbs from 1.25% to 2.50% water when exposed to 50% relative humidity for 24 hours at 25°C. This variation in water adsorption is due to a difference in the amount of oxygen complexes on the surface of the carbon. The carbon with more oxygen complexes adsorbs more water. However, when this carbon black is heat treated at 1200°C for 4 hours in a vacuum of 1 × 10−5 torr or better, the water adsorbed by the carbon is 0.4% when exposed to 50% relative humidity. Data showing the dependence of water adsorption on vacuum thermal processing are presented and discussed.
Recently we reported the chemistry-structure-property relationships of organic aerogels, which are synthesized by the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde in a slightly basic medium, followed by supercritical drying. These materials can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form vitreous carbon aerogels. As measured by gas adsorption techniques, the BET surface area and pore size distributions of micro and meso pores of the carbon aerogels are affected both by the pyrolysis temperature and the formulation. Definite trends are observed in our preliminary measurements; for example, the surface area decreases with increasing pyrolysis temperature until a plateau is reached at about 900°C. This paper explores the effects of pyrolysis temperature and aerogel density on the BET surface area and pore size distributions.
The ligament structure of several open-cell carbon foams was examined by optical and electron microscopy. The arrangement, sizes, and shapes of the ligaments were measured and analyzed according to the cell sizes. The ligament lengths and cross-sections vary with the cell sizes in a simply scaled fashion. A models based on the observed dodecahedral-like arrangement of ligaments was constructed consisting of 12-, 14-, and 15-faced polyhedra with five-edged faces dominating.
Neutron diffraction data from a large, off-substrate sample of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) is presented and discussed. The material is prepared using a fast-atom deposition system using acetylene as the precursor gas. The experiments were performed on the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK) which is capable of yielding data over an exceptionally wide dynamic range; this ensures a real-space resolution sufficient to resolve directly, for the first time, contributions from the principle C-C bond types. Precise details on the C-H correlations are also revealed by the data, including the presence of molecular hydrogen trapped within distorted spheroidal cages. Quantitative complementary data on the vibrational states of the bonded hydrogen, derived from inelastic neutron scattering (INS) using a simple force-field model, is also presented. In particular, the INS data is used to provide a reliable estimate of the CH:CH2 ratio.
In addition to being successfully used for ion implantation, the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique has been used to produce diamond-like carbon films. Homogeneous, adherent films were obtained on silicon and stainless steel substrates under 2 kV pulse bias voltages and 50 mtorr methane plasma pressure. Chemical composition analysis was made using Auger electron microscopy. Fretting wear tests and scratch tests were performed to study the tribological and adherent properties. Cross sectional TEM samples were prepared. The interfacial microstrucutres and chemical compositions were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy.
The new technique of ion structural chromatography is applied to carbon clusters. The results indicate that C5+ and C6+ are purely linear but C7+, C8+, C9+ and C1O+ have both linear and monocyclic ring structures. From C11+ to C20+ only monocyclic ring structures are observed. At C21+, a new family of planar ring structures appears. The first 3 dimensional structure occurs at C29+ and the first fullerene at C30+. Isomer structure is verified by the comparison of experimental mobilities with those derived from theory for the various structures. For C20+ only the monocyclic ring is observed experimentally but electronic structure calculations suggest more compact structures might be lower in energy. The results are discussed in terms of possible growth mechanisms for C60.