To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In today’s global business environment teams are fast becoming the norm. Collaboration is an essential factor in leveraging team effectiveness, and organizations are looking for strategies to increase collaboration among their teams. In this study, we administered an eSurvey to 308 professionals working in face-to-face and virtual teams to investigate emotional intelligence and strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results as strategies to support the collaborative process. Results found the regression of collaboration on emotional intelligence (controlling for age, ethnicity, and education) was significant (p<.01). Results also found a significant indirect effect between emotional intelligence and collaboration as mediated by strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (β=0.110, Z=2.444). We focus on understanding the effect of emotional intelligence on team collaboration as mediated by strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results. Recommendations are provided for increasing emotional intelligence and strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results among team members. Our research has important implications for teams and their pervasive use in business.
Part of Robert T. Leiper's (1881–1969) lasting legacy in medical helminthology is grounded on his pioneering work on schistosomiasis (Bilharzia). Having undertaken many expeditions to the tropics, his fascination with parasite life cycles typically allowed him to devise simple preventive measures that curtailed transmission. Building on his formative work with others in Africa and Asia, and again in Egypt in 1915, he elucidated the life cycles of African schistosomes. His mandate, then commissioned by the British War Office, was to prevent and break transmission of this disease in British troops. This he did by raising standing orders based on simple water hygiene measures. Whilst feasible in military camp settings, today their routine implementation is sadly out of reach for millions of Africans living in poverty. Whilst we celebrate the centenary of Leiper's research we draw attention to some of his lesser known colleagues, then focus on schistosomiasis in Uganda discussing why expanded access to treatment with praziquantel is needed now. Looking to WHO 2020 targets for neglected tropical diseases, we introduce COUNTDOWN, an implementation research consortium funded by DFID, UK, which fosters the scale-up of interventions and confirm the current relevance of Leiper's original research.
We describe the efficacy of enhanced infection control measures, including those recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2012 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) toolkit, to control concurrent outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB).
Before-after intervention study.
Fifteen-bed surgical trauma intensive care unit (ICU).
We investigated the impact of enhanced infection control measures in response to clusters of CPE and XDR-AB infections in an ICU from April 2009 to March 2010. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of blaKPC and resistance plasmids in CRE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess XDR-AB clonality. Enhanced infection-control measures were implemented in response to ongoing transmission of CPE and a new outbreak of XDR-AB. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the incidence rate (IR) of CPE and XDR-AB before and after the implementation of these measures.
The IR of CPE for the 12 months before the implementation of enhanced measures was 7.77 cases per 1,000 patient-days, whereas the IR of XDR-AB for the 3 months before implementation was 6.79 cases per 1,000 patient-days. All examined CPE shared endemic blaKPC resistance plasmids, and 6 of the 7 XDR-AB isolates were clonal. Following institution of enhanced infection control measures, the CPE IR decreased to 1.22 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P = .001), and no more cases of XDR-AB were identified.
Use of infection control measures described in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2012 CRE toolkit was associated with a reduction in the IR of CPE and an interruption in XDR-AB transmission.
Alligatorweed, waterhyacinth, and hydrilla are three nonnative aquatic species of concern in the Ross Barnett Reservoir near Jackson, MS. Point-intercept surveys were conducted on the reservoir from 2005 to 2010 to monitor native and nonnative species' distributions and assess herbicide treatment efficacy across the reservoir. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and diquat were made during summer months for emergent and free-floating vegetation, whereas submersed applications of liquid copper and granular fluridone were applied in spring and late summer for subsurface hydrilla populations. American lotus is the native species that has been observed the most throughout the survey years, with occurrence frequencies averaging between 17 and 27%. Alligatorweed populations significantly decreased from 21% in 2005 to 4% in 2006; however, they consistently increased in the next 4 yr to 12% occurrence in 2010. Waterhyacinth occurrence has remained relatively constant over the study period, averaging below 10% occurrence. Hydrilla was discovered in the reservoir in late 2005 and has remained below 2% in frequency of occurrence since 2006. Suppression of these nonnative species has been attributed to rigorous monitoring and herbicide applications conducted on the reservoir since 2005. A logistic regression model indicated that as native species richness increased, the likelihood of a nonnative species occurring also increased.
It is perhaps unusual for an academic journal like the Lancet to spearhead a ‘movement’ to advocate the scaling up of mental health services in low-income countries. Yet at the movement's launch in London in November 2007, attended by representatives from World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, donor agencies, as well as the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) and the Royal College of Psychiatrists, it was clear that a seminal series of papers, published in September of last year, was of the utmost importance for world psychiatry and for our planet. The five papers in the series ‘Global Mental Health’ had the following titles: ‘No health without mental health’; ‘Resources for mental health: scarcity, equity, and inefficiency’; ‘Treatment and prevention of mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries’; ‘Mental health systems in countries: where are we now?’; and ‘Barriers to improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries’ (Lancet, September 2007, vol. 370, nos 9590–9593).
Postnatal depression seems to be a universal condition with similar rates in different countries. However, anthropologists question the cross-cultural equivalence of depression, particularly at a life stage so influenced by cultural factors.
To develop a qualitative method to explore whether postnatal depression is universally recognised, attributed and described and to enquire into people's perceptions of remedies and services for morbid states of unhappiness within the context of local services.
The study took place in 15 centres in 11 countries and drew on three groups of informants: focus groups with new mothers, interview swith fathers and grandmothers, and interviews with health professionals. Textual analysis of these three groups was conducted separately in each centre and emergent themes compared across centres.
All centres described morbid unhappiness after childbirth comparable to postnatal depression but not all saw this as an illness remediable by health interventions.
Although the findings of this study support the universality of a morbid state of unhappiness following childbirth, they also support concerns about the cross-cultural equivalence of postnatal depression as an illness requiring the intervention of health professionals; this has implications for future research.
Electrochemical atomic-layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) is an approach to electrodepositing thin-films of compound semiconductors. It takes advantage of underpotential deposition (UPD), deposition of a surface limited amount (a monolayer or less) of an element at a potential less negative than bulk deposition, to form a thin-film of a compound--one atomic layer at a time. Ideally, the 2-D growth mode should promote epitaxial deposition.
We report the formation of compound Cu2Se, at room temperature by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). Cyclic voltammograms were used to determine the deposition potentials of each element. An automated deposition program was used to form 750 cycles of Cu2Se thin films. Electron probe microanalysis was done to determine the stoichiometry of the thin films. X-ray diffraction of the 200 cycle deposit indicated the presence of polycrystalline Cu2Se. The atomic ratio of Cu/Se in the thin films was found to be 2. Band gap of the thin films were determined by reflection absorption measurements. The band gap of the 200 cycle Cu2Se films was found to be 1.6 eV. X-ray diffraction of 350 and 750 cycle Cu2Se films, indicated the deposits consisted of Cu3Se2 and Cu2Se.
In a systematic study of thalamocortical relay neuron responses to sinusoidal current injection [J. Neurophysiol. 83 (1), 588], we found that the Fourier fundamental of tonic responses was regularly phase advanced during low temporal frequency stimulation (1/10 cycle at 0.1 Hz). We hypothesized that such phase advances of the Fourier fundamental response were due to a slow spike-frequency adaptation. Here we measure the time-dependence of the instantaneous firing rate during a current pulse protocol, confirm the presence of a slow spike-frequency adaptation, and quantify the adaptation time constant (0.6–2.0 s) and percentage adaptation of spike rate (40–60%). In light of these results, we augment a previously reported minimal integrate-and-fire-or-burst (IFB) neuron model with an adaptation current. When the parameters for this current are fit using a quantitative theory of spike-frequency adaptation [J. Neurophysiol. 79, 1549], the IFB model reproduces the experimentally observed phase advance of the Fourier fundamental response during sinusoidal current injection. Using fast-slow variable analysis, we develop a firing-rate reduction of the IFB model and perform parameter studies to investigate the dependence of the Fourier fundamental response (amplitude and phase) on the maximum conductance and recovery time constant for the adaptation current. Analytical calculations clarify the relationship between dc and ac measures of the suppression of response due to spike-frequency adaptation, show how the latter depends on stimulation frequency, and confirm the adaptation-induced phase advance of the Fourier fundamental observed in both experiment and simulation.
When invited to give the Maxwell Jones lecture as part of the Fiftieth Anniversary Celebrations of the Henderson Hospital I was pleased and honoured, as well as somewhat surprised. I welcomed the opportunity to pay tribute to an outstanding social psychiatrist and to reflect on a decade of turbulent change within mental health services.
This paper reports further data from the Stoke study of postnatal depression and examines whether psychosocial characteristics and symptom profiles differ between postnatal and control depression.
Two hundred and thirty-two postnatal and non-postnatal control women were screened with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; all high scorers and a sample of low scorers were interviewed with the Standardised Psychiatric Interview and modified Social Maladjustment Schedule. Depression was diagnosed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria.
Postnatal but not control depression was associated with a poor relationship with the woman's own mother and greater occupational instability. Depression in control women was associated with low income, having three or more children, performing manual work and occupational dissatisfaction, but postnatal depression was not. There were no differences in the symptom profiles of the postnatal and control women nor between early and late onset postnatal depression.
Depression is a common and socially disabling disorder affecting mothers of young children. Postnatal depression is more contingent on acute biopsychosocial stresses caused by the arrival of a new family member. Depression in women with older children is more closely related to longer term social adversity.
At present there is a somewhat damaging ‘splitting’ occurring within the NHS ‘reforms’ – assisted by the media. Consultant psychiatrists, who are regarded as intrusive and paternalistic, administer treatments (mostly medication and ECT) to patients who are not consulted, and are generally thought to know what is best for themselves. General management, which overtly sets out to ‘change the culture’, appears to sustain this irrational harmful and pseudo confrontation.
This paper contributes to a debate about the nature of religious belief and its relevance for the practice of psychiatry. The need for dialogue is recognised not only because of multi-faith UK society but also because mental health services are now more tailored to the expectation of patients. To understand the possible relevance of spiritual and existential dimensions to mental illness, even in a secular society, has become more necessary. Training, service delivery and research issues are briefly addressed.