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Young’s “African American Magazine Modernism” argues that it is important to recognize the extent to which African American writers and artists appeared in a wide range of magazines in the 1920s. This chapter examines moments of cross-cultural interaction, including such examples as the pieces of Jean Toomer’s Cane distributed across race-conscious, avant-garde, and regional magazines (1922-23); Zora Neale Hurston’s “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” in the pacifist-socialist journal The World Tomorrow (1928); and the infamous case of Nella Larsen’s “Sanctuary” in Century Magazine (1930). Reading African American modernism across these disparate bibliographical environments yields not an easily coherent picture but what John Bryant terms the “muddy materiality” of textual history.
Seed retention, and ultimately seed shatter, are extremely important for the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) and are likely influenced by various agroecological and environmental factors. Field studies investigated seed-shattering phenology of 22 weed species across three soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-producing regions in the United States. We further evaluated the potential drivers of seed shatter in terms of weather conditions, growing degree days, and plant biomass. Based on the results, weather conditions had no consistent impact on weed seed shatter. However, there was a positive correlation between individual weed plant biomass and delayed weed seed–shattering rates during harvest. This work demonstrates that HWSC can potentially reduce weed seedbank inputs of plants that have escaped early-season management practices and retained seed through harvest. However, smaller individuals of plants within the same population that shatter seed before harvest pose a risk of escaping early-season management and HWSC.
Epidemiological and intervention studies have reported negative health effects of sucrose intake, but many of these studies were not representative of typical dietary habits. In this pilot study, we aimed to test the effect of increasing sucrose intakes for 1 week on body composition and blood pressure and explore the feasibility of consuming high intakes of sucrose in addition to a habitual diet. In a randomised crossover design study, twelve healthy participants (50 % female, age 28⋅4 ± 10 years, BMI 25 ± 3 kg/m2), consumed either 40, 80 or 120 g sucrose in 500 ml water in addition to their habitual diet every day for 1 week, with a 1-week washout between treatment periods. Body composition (assessed using bioelectrical impedance) and blood pressure measurements were taken before and after each intervention phase. All participants reported no issues with consuming the sucrose dose for the intervention period. There was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure following 120 g sucrose intake (P = 0⋅006), however there was no significant changes to blood pressure, body weight, BMI, percentage protein, fat or water (P > 0⋅05) when comparing change from baseline values. There was also no effect of sucrose intakes on energy or macronutrient intakes during the intervention (P > 0⋅05). We show here that varying doses of sucrose over a 1-week period have no effect on body composition or blood pressure. The amounts of sucrose used were an acceptable addition to the habitual diet and demonstrate the feasibility of larger-scale studies of chronic sucrose supplementation.
Recommendations for free sugar intake in the UK should be no more than 5 % of total energy due to increased health risks associated with overconsumption. It was therefore of interest to examine free sugar intakes and associations with health parameters in the UK population. The UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (2008–2017) was used for this study. Dietary intake, anthropometrical measurements and clinical biomarker data collated from 5121 adult respondents aged 19–64 years were statistically analysed. Compared with the average total carbohydrate intake (48 % of energy), free sugars comprised 12·5 %, with sucrose 9 % and fructose 3·5 %. Intakes of these sugars, apart from fructose, were significantly different over collection year (P < 0·001) and significantly higher in males (P < 0·001). Comparing those consuming above or below the UK recommendations for free sugars (5 % energy), significant differences were found for BMI (P < 0·001), TAG (P < 0·001), HDL (P = 0·006) and homocysteine concentrations (P = 0·028), and significant sex differences were observed (e.g. lower blood pressure in females). Regression analysis demonstrated that free sugar intake could predict plasma TAG, HDL and homocysteine concentrations (P < 0·0001), consistent with the link between these parameters and CVD. We also found selected unhealthy food choices (using the UK Eatwell Guide) to be significantly higher in those that consumed above the recommendations (P < 0·0001) and were predictors of free sugar intakes (P < 0·0001). We have shown that adult free sugar intakes in the UK population are associated with certain negative health parameters that support the necessary reduction in free sugar intakes for the UK population.
As Richard Wright was establishing his career in the 1940s, he maintained profitable but uneasy relationships with white audiences, especially those approaching his works within the political liberalism that held sway over much of American culture in this period. While Wright’s works struck a powerful chord in redirecting American culture to acknowledge the costs of race-based exclusion, the extent of that change was only ever partial, and often depended on Wright’s narratives being disseminated and received along the lines of established, white cultural parameters. At the same time, the commercial and critical successes of Native Son and Black Boy established the foundation for Wright’s career, and his interactions with white writers, living and dead, provided influential models and connections. This essay explores this tension while situating Wright’s work and publishing history in relation to civil rights activism and cultural liberalism in the 1940s, and its (sometimes distorted) reflection in the images of Wright circulated by his publishers and the mainstream press, by tracing the paratextual materials attached to Wright’s books and the wide range of publication venues in which his stories and essays appeared.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
The Darwin–Hatherton Glacial system (DHGS) connects the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) with the Ross Ice Shelf and is a key area for understanding past variations in ice thickness of surrounding ice masses. Here we present the first detailed measurements of ice thickness and grounding zone characteristics of the DHGS as well as new measurements of ice velocity. The results illustrate the changes that occur in glacier geometry and ice flux as ice flows from the polar plateau and into the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice discharge and the mean basal ice shelf melt for the first 8.5 km downstream of the grounding line amount to 0.24 ± 0.05 km3 a−1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 m a−1, respectively. As the ice begins to float, ice thickness decreases rapidly and basal terraces develop. Constructed maps of glacier geometry suggest that ice drainage from the EAIS into the Darwin Glacier occurs primarily through a deep subglacial canyon. By contrast, ice thins to <200 m at the head of the much slower flowing Hatherton Glacier. The glaciological field study establishes an improved basis for the interpretation of glacial drift sheets at the link between the EAIS and the Ross Ice Sheet.
While the summit of the Antarctic Plateau has long been expected to harbor the best ground-based sites for terahertz (THz) frequency astronomical investigations, it is only recently that direct observations of exceptional THz atmospheric transmission and stability have been obtained. These observations, in combination with recent technological advancements in astronomical instrumentation and autonomous field platforms, make the recognition and realization of terahertz observatories on the high plateau feasible and timely. Here, we will explore the context of terahertz astronomy in the era of Herschel, and the crucial role that observatories on the Antarctic Plateau can play. We explore the important scientific questions to which observations from this unique environment may be most productively applied. We examine the importance and complementarity of Antarctic THz astronomy in the light of contemporary facilities such as ALMA, CCAT, SOFIA and (U)LDB ballooning. Finally, building from the roots of THz facilities in Antarctica to present efforts, we broadly highlight future facilities that will exploit the unique advantages of the Polar Plateau and provide a meaningful, lasting astrophysical legacy.