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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
This study evaluated the efficacy of a family-centered preventive intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), delivered as an online, eHealth model to middle school families. To increase accessibility of family-centered prevention in schools, we adapted the evidence-based FCU to an online format, with the goal of providing a model of service delivery that is feasible, given limited staffing and resources in many schools. Building on prior research, we randomly assigned participants to waitlist control (n = 105), FCU Online as a web-based intervention (n = 109), and FCU Online with coaching support (n = 108). We tested the effects of the intervention on multiple outcomes, including parental self-efficacy, child self-regulation, and child behavior, in this registered clinical trial (NCT03060291). Families engaged in the intervention at a high rate (72% completed the FCU assessment) and completed 3-month posttest assessments with good retention (94% retained). Random assignment to the FCU Online with coaching support was associated with reduced emotional problems for children (p = .003, d = −0.32) and improved parental confidence and self-efficacy (p = .018, d = 0.25) when compared with waitlist controls. Risk moderated effects: at-risk youth showed stronger effects than did those with minimal risk. The results have implications for online delivery of family-centered interventions in schools.
We use the upper 81 mof the record of stable isotopes of water from a 122m long ice core from Lomonosovfonna, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, to construct an ice-core chronology and the annual accumulation rates over the icefield. the isotope cycles are counted in the ice-core record using a model that neglects short-wavelength and low-amplitude cycles. We find approximately the same number of δ18O cycles as years between known reference horizons, and assume these cycles represent annual cycles. Testing the validity of this assumption using cycles in δD shows that both records give similar numbers of cycles. Using the δ18O chronology, and decompressing the accumulation records using the Nye flow model, we calculate the annual accumulation for the ice-core site back to AD 1715. We find that the average accumulation rate from 1715 to 1950 was on average 0.30 mw.e. Accumulation rates increased about 25% during the later part of the 20th century to an average of 0.41 mw.e. for the period 1950–97. the accumulation rates show highly significant 2.1 and 21 year periodicities, which gives credibility to our time-scale.
Objectives: Numerous studies have shown that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display reduced performances on neuropsychological tests, although most prior research has not adequately accounted for comorbidities or performance validity concerns that are common in this population and could partially account for the observed neurocognitive findings. Moreover, few studies have examined the functional implications of neuropsychological results in PTSD. Methods: We examined neuropsychological functioning in 44 veterans with PTSD and 40 veteran trauma comparison (TC) participants with combat exposure and no PTSD. Results: After excluding four veterans with PTSD for performance validity concerns, multivariate analyses of variance by neurocognitive domain revealed significantly worse performance by the PTSD group in the domains of speed of information processing (p=.035) and executive functions (p=.017), but no group differences in attention/working memory, verbal/language functioning, visuoconstruction, or episodic memory. Group differences by PTSD status were still present after covarying for depression, a history of head injuries, and substance use disorders. Executive functioning performance was associated with poorer self-reported occupational functioning and physical health-related quality of life, while speed of information processing performance was associated with poorer physical health-related quality of life. Discussion: These results are generally consistent with a fronto-limbic conceptualization of PTSD-associated neuropsychological dysfunction and show that cognitive functioning may be associated with critical functional outcomes. Taken together, results suggest that consideration of neurocognitive functioning may enhance the clinical management of individuals with PTSD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 399–411)
Objective: Despite an increasing recognition that psychiatric disorders can be diagnosed as early as preschool, little is known how early genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders during this very early period of development. Method: We assessed infant temperament at age 1, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) at ages 3 through 5 years in a sample of Hispanic twins. Genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects were estimated for each temperamental construct and psychiatric disorder using the statistical program MX. Multivariate genetic models were fitted to determine whether the same or different sets of genes and environments account for the co-occurrence between early temperament and preschool psychiatric disorders. Results: Additive genetic factors accounted for 61% of the variance in ADHD, 21% in ODD, and 28% in SAD. Shared environmental factors accounted for 34% of the variance in ODD and 15% of SAD. The genetic influence on difficult temperament was significantly associated with preschool ADHD, SAD, and ODD. The association between ODD and SAD was due to both genetic and family environmental factors. The temperamental trait of resistance to control was entirely accounted for by the shared family environment. Conclusions: There are different genetic and family environmental pathways between infant temperament and psychiatric diagnoses in this sample of Puerto Rican preschool age children.
It is important to measure the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles during hyperthermia therapy to develop safe practices. We theoretically demonstrate a method for measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles using induction coils and nanoparticle magnetization harmonics. A geometrically decoupled sensing coil is described that enhances the sensitivity to small amounts of iron and also could possibly be used to eliminate sensing challenges created by the high-powered hyperthermia drive field.