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The mass changes of the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) glaciers are computed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) inter-satellite range-rate data for the period April 2003–September 2007. Through the application of unique processing techniques and a surface mass concentration (mascon) parameterization, the mass variations in the GoA glacier regions have been estimated at high temporal (10 day) and spatial (2 × 2 arc-degrees) resolution. The mascon solutions are directly estimated from a reduction of the GRACE K-band inter-satellite range-rate data and, unlike previous GRACE solutions for the GoA glaciers, do not exhibit contamination by leakage from mass change occurring outside the region of interest. The mascon solutions reveal considerable temporal and spatial variation within the GoA glacier region, with the largest negative mass balances observed in the St Elias Mountains including the Yakutat and Glacier Bay regions. The most rapid losses occurred during the 2004 melt season due to record temperatures in Alaska during that year. The total mass balance of the GoA glacier region was −84 ± 5 Gt a−1 contributing 0.23 ± 0.01 mm a−1 to global sea-level rise from April 2003 through March 2007. Highlighting the large seasonal and interannual variability of the GoA glaciers, the rate determined over the period April 2003–March 2006 is −102 ± 5 Gt a−1, which includes the anomalously high temperatures of 2004 and does not include the large 2007 winter balance-year snowfall. The mascon solutions agree well with regional patterns of glacier mass loss determined from aircraft altimetry and in situ measurements.
Parachurch organizations are Christian, heavily evangelical Protestant, 501(c)(3) public charities focused on providing religious goods and services outside of any congregational or denominational sponsorship. The parachurch sector in the United States has been growing rapidly in recent decades, yet this growth has been highly uneven across communities. Many communities have very few parachurch organizations, while a few exhibit incredibly higher concentrations of them than would be expected based only upon their religious composition. Using IRS records, we isolate communities with the greatest concentrations of parachurch organizations, and then, drawing upon ideas developed in studies of industrial districts, we address this puzzle by exploring four of those communities, which we refer to as spiritual districts: Tulsa, Oklahoma; Nashville, Tennessee; Colorado Springs, Colorado; and Washington, D.C. We utilize interviews with organizational leaders and archival records to attempt to account for the makeup of and dynamics of each of the four unique clusters of parachurch organizations, concluding with a discussion of how understanding spiritual districts can contribute to greater understanding of the phenomenon of industrial districts.
To evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) associated with the diet of Irish adults.
GHGE were estimated by applying conversion factors to habitual food consumption data taken from the National Adult Nutrition Survey, which was representative of the population. Descriptive analyses were undertaken for GHGE for the total population, as well as accounting for energy misreporting and across categories of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors and tertiles of emissions.
Republic of Ireland.
Adults aged 18–87 years (n 1500).
The GHGE derived from daily dietary intakes was estimated as 6·5 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) per person. Males, younger consumers, those with secondary education and student employment status were associated with significantly higher GHGE. Red meat was the highest contributor to GHGE with 1646 g CO2eq arising from a mean intake of 47 g/d. Dairy and starchy staples were the next largest dietary GHGE sources, with mean daily emissions of 732 g CO2eq and 647 g CO2eq, respectively. The lowest emissions were associated with consumption of vegetables, fruits and legumes/pulses/nuts.
Based on profiling using actual food consumption data, it is evident that one single measure is not sufficient and a range of evidence-based mitigation measures with potential to lower emissions throughout the food chain should be considered. The research contributes towards an improved understanding of the climatic impact of the dietary intakes of Irish adults and can serve to inform a sustainability framework to guide action in food and nutrition policy development.
Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11–28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78–127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.
Reactive ion etching of features down to 100 nm in linewidth in tungsten has been studied using an SF6 based chemistry. The studies were carried out in a PlasmaTherm 500 etcher operated at low pressure (2 mTorr) and power (100 mWatts/cm2). Key processing parameters have been identified to achieve the resolution and aspect ratio required for high contrast x-ray masks. The critical parameters include sample temperature, gas dilution and end point detection. However, even with all of these parameters optimized, additional sidewall passivation is required to obtain the necessary 6.5:1 aspect ratio. A novel method of achieving such passivation based on an intermittent etching process is described.
The chemical variation of central North American lignite fly ash can be compared using the major and minor oxide analyses and the distribution pattern of the inter-grain chemistries of the individual fly ash particles. AAS and electron microprobe chemical analysis of nineteen fly ashes have been used to illustrate the variations in bulk sample and individual grain chemistry. This information documents the chemical variability of the lignite fly ashes by geographic region. There is a direct relationship between grains rich in SiO2 and Al2O3 and in the Na2O content of the grains in lignite derived fly ashes. There is also a direct relationship between grains rich in CaP and the MgO and SO3 content of the grains in lignite derived fly ashes.
When a medial consonant cluster is simplified by deletion or place assimilation, the first consonant is affected, but never the second one: /patka/ becomes [paka] and not *[pata]; /panpa/ becomes [pampa] and not [panta]. This article accounts for that observation within a derivational version of Optimality Theory called Harmonic Serialism. In Harmonic Serialism, the final output is reached by a series of derivational steps that gradually improve harmony. If there is no gradual, harmonically improving path from a given underlying representation to a given surface representation, this mapping is impossible in Harmonic Serialism, even if it would be allowed in classic Optimality Theory. In cluster simplification, deletion or Place assimilation is the second step in a derivation that begins with deleting Place features, and deleting Place features improves harmony only in coda position.
The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) is an HST/ACS imaging survey of 2 square degrees centered on RA = 10:00:28.6, Dec = + 02:12:21 (J2000). While the primary goal of the survey is to study evolution of galaxy morphology and large scale structure, an extensive multi-wavelength data set allows for a sensitive survey of AGN. Spectroscopy of optical counterparts to faint X-ray and radio sources is being carried out with the Magallen (Baade) Telescope and the ESO VLT. By achieving ∼80 redshift completeness down to I AB = 3, the eventual yield of AGN will be ∼1100 over the whole field.
Early results on supermassive black holes are described. The goals of the survey include a bolometric census of AGN down to moderate luminosities, the cosmic evolution and fueling history of the central engines, and a study of AGN environments on scales ranging from the host galaxy to clusters and superclusters.
In Optimality Theory, constraints come in two types, which are distinguished by their mode of evaluation. Categorical constraints are either satisfied or not; a categorical constraint assigns no more than one violation-mark, unless there are several violating structures in the form under evaluation. Gradient constraints evaluate extent of deviation; they can assign multiple marks even when there is just a single instance of the non-conforming structure. This article proposes a restrictive definition of what an OT constraint is, from which it follows that all constraints must be categorical. The various gradient constraints that have been proposed are examined, and it is argued that none is necessary and many have undesirable consequences.
Serial derivations have been a central idea in the theory of generative phonology throughout its history, but scant attention has been paid to a key question: is any serial derivation possible in human languages? More precisely, can any independently licit rule coexist with any other licit rule, and can the rules apply in any order? The rule coexistence question has, to my knowledge, never been raised in the literature. The rule ordering question was investigated intensively during the early 1970s (see Iverson 1995 for a review), but often just a pair of rules was studied in isolation from the broader derivational context. Since about 1975, research in generative phonology has mostly dealt with the form of rules and the nature of representations – subjects that are interesting in themselves but do not help advance the theory of derivations.
A rare contribution to this neglected topic is Pullum's (1976) study of the “Duke-of-York gambit.” Duke-of-York (DY) derivations have the general form A → B → A, where underlying A passes through a B stage before returning to surface A again. For example, in some analyses of r-dropping and r-intrusion in various English dialects, final r is first deleted and then reinserted before a vowel: Homer is → Hom[ǝ] is → Homer is (cf. Hom[ǝ] saw).
In his article ‘Consonant cluster neutralisation and targeted constraints’, Wilson (2001) proposes a far-reaching revision of Optimality Theory to accommodate targeted constraints, which compare candidates differing only in certain specific ways. Targeted constraints, it is argued, can explain why cluster-simplification processes affect the first member of a cluster but never the more marked member of a cluster. In this remark, I show that this argument encounters difficulties once it has been embedded in a fuller picture of constraint interaction. Some general properties of the targeted-constraints model are also discussed.
Optimality Theory has implications for a wide range of issues in linguistics and adjoining fields. The previous chapter dealt with phonological, morphological, and syntactic matters, though with the focus always on the theory and results deducible from it, rather than on the phenomena. This chapter offers a synoptic view of some of the discoveries and issues that have emerged as the scope of OT research has expanded into other areas. Its relatively modest goals will be fulfilled if it helps readers to situate the most important questions and results in relation to the rest of OT and if the bibliography leads some readers to delve more deeply into these matters.
Perhaps because OT was originally and most extensively illustrated with phonological phenomena, there is relatively little theory-internal disagreement about the answers to some basic questions as they apply to phonology: What is the input? What does GEN do, and what candidates does it offer up? How do faithfulness constraints work? How does a theory with violable constraints obtain absolute ill-formedness? But when these same questions are asked about syntax, a thousand flowers bloom and many schools of thought contend. Furthermore, syntactic applications of OT must address an issue that is somewhat less important in phonology (see §2.3): how is it possible to have optionality or variation when EVAL usually supplies a unique optimal candidate (§1.1.2)? These questions are the topic of §4.1.
From the outset, OT has been coupled to an explicit theory of learning. It has also figured prominently in empirical studies of language acquisition, again almost from the outset.