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The authors of this paper met at Harvard University in July, 1955, to discuss the theoretical problems which arise in the study of culture contact situations in archaeology. The subject of contacts between cultures is one in which ethnologists have long been interested, and there is a substantial body of literature, both descriptive and theoretical, on contemporary and recent historic situations of this kind. Archaeological interest in the subject is somewhat more recent, but a few excellent reports on specific examples have appeared which we could use as a basis for our discussions. We believe that this paper is only the second attempt to contribute something to this field by generalization from archaeological data (Willeyl953).
Glen’s flow law is a well-established general law for steady-state glacier ice deformation, and many laboratory tests and field measurements have been undertaken which have shown the generality of the law to be correct. In Nature, ice deformation is the response of the glacier/ice sheet to the applied self-weight stress of the ice mass (i.e. ice thickness, gravity and ice density) which produces a stress gradient within the ice column. Detailed experimental analyses of ice samples in the laboratory have until now only been undertaken using uniform stress fields in uniaxial or triaxial tests. Obviously the best method for investigating ice in the laboratory would be if stress gradients similar to those found in Nature could be replicated. In the following paper we describe the physical modelling of two (laboratory-prepared) isotropic, polycrystalline ice models (0.75 × 0.25 × 0.18 m) at enhanced gravity levels (80g) in a geotechnical beam centrifuge. Steel plate was placed on top of the ice model, replicating an overburden of approximately 36 m of ice (at 80g). Thus we were able to model the deformation of the lower 14 m of an ice mass approximately 50 m thick. Models are confined laterally by the Perspex strongbox walls, preventing lateral extension within the sample during testing. Models are unconfined on their downslope ends, rendering longitudinal stresses negligible. Deformation can therefore be treated as simple shear. Samples are instrumented with displacement markers and thermocouples. Values for A and n in the flow law derived from the experiments are reasonable and indicate the potential of this method for ice-deformation studies.
Though the conspicuous volcanic phenomena of the Fifeshire coast-line have for long attracted the attention of petrologists, the igneous geology of the interior has not been studied in any detail. The petrological sections of the relative Geological Survey Memoirs, together with Geikie's Ancient Volcanoes, describe numerous inland vents and intrusions, while a large number of the doleritic sills has recently been made the subject of a most interesting paper by Mr D. Balsillie, but a belt of country stretching from St Andrews to Loch Leven proved to be practically virgin ground from the point of view of the igneous geologist. It is the intrusions of this area, together with a few pyroclastic deposits, which form the subject of the present communication. Only rocks which have hitherto been undescribed are treated petrologically, though in the case of several better known intrusions alterations of the published maps have been found necessary.
Nitridation is the process in which, during the initial growth of a-SiNx:H layers on Si surfaces, nitrogen (N) is incorporated into Si lattice near its surface. We show that this nitridation process affects the density of interface states (Dit) and fixed charges (Qf) at the interface. These parameters determine the effective surface passivation quality of the layers. The nitridation can be tuned independently of the growth of a-SiNx:H layers by using a plasma treatment prior to actual a-SiNx:H layer deposition. It is shown that the Qf can be varied from 2·1012 to 15·1012 cm-2 without changing the a-SiNx:H deposition process. It is demonstrated that in our case and processing window, Qf is the determining factor in surface passivation quality in the range of 2·1012 to 8·1012 cm-2. For higher values of Qf, Dit has increased significantly and has become dominant thereby reducing the passivation quality. It is shown that the passivation can be controlled independently of the a-SiNx:H deposition process. On completed solar cells this variation in Qf due to nitridation results in a change in open-circuit voltage, Voc, of almost 20mV.
We introduce a new approach to an enumerative problem closely linked with the geometry of branched coverings, that is, we study the number
of ways a given permutation (with cycles described by the partition
) can be decomposed into a product of exactly
3-cycles, etc., with certain minimality and transitivity conditions imposed on the factors. The method is to encode such factorizations as planar maps with certain descent structure and apply a new combinatorial decomposition to make their enumeration more manageable. We apply our technique to determine
has one or two parts, extending earlier work of Goulden and Jackson. We also show how these methods are readily modified to count inequivalent factorizations, where equivalence is defined by permitting commutations of adjacent disjoint factors. Our technique permits us to generalize recent work of Goulden, Jackson, and Latour, while allowing for a considerable simplification of their analysis.
Take yourself back in time. It is 1700 and you are in the studio of your teacher, Arcangelo Corelli, in Rome. He has just demonstrated to you a passage from his newly-published Sonate a Violino e Violone o Cimbalo, and now asks you: ‘non l’intendite parlare?’
‘Do you not hear it speak?’ In that question, Corelli captures the essentials of musical performance in the eighteenth century. The composer (who in the eighteenth century was so often also the performer) expected his music to be rendered sensible, expressive, meaningful by being spoken. The performer (whether or not synonymous with the composer) had a duty to make that music speak by reading the signs it contained (whether notated or not) and applying performance conventions to them that differed widely across Europe, and were diversely recorded in vocal and instrumental treatises published throughout the century in many places and in many languages. All such treatises, though, presumed the same thing: that the performer will afford the music a way of being spoken. The instrument or voice was a related tool (combining with the performer’s skill) that allowed the music to speak, and to speak appropriately. Finally, the audience expected the music to speak to them. Music was a kind of Rhetoric.
Whenever I was in Berlin, I would seldom miss Möser’s quartet evenings. For me, such artistic presentations were always the most intelligible forum for appreciating instrumental music, in which one heard four reasonable people conversing, as it were, believed their discourse to be profitable and became acquainted with the individuality of the instruments. Goethes Briefe Band IV: Briefe der Jahre 1821–1832.’ Textkritisch durchgesehen und mit Anmerkungen versehen von Karl Robert Mandelkow (Hamburg, 1967), no. 1443.
Goethe’s letter to Carl Friedrich Zelter (9 November 1829) is sometimes cited as an idealisation of the Classical string quartet, in which this genre is treated as a musical embodiment of civilised Enlightenment conversation between intellectual peers, the ‘thread’ of the conversation passing effortlessly through the entire musical ensemble. In other respects Goethe’s comment sheds light upon the relationship between early Romantic instrumental music – specifically chamber music in this context – and its immediate Classical past. The evocation of an ideal mode of Enlightenment conversation suggests a nostalgia for a past, even if that past were nothing but an imagined construction (that is, one of many such possible pasts), in relation to which the early Romantic present might be situated. Although he mentions no specific event, either public or private, nor even a specific repertory, it is clear enough that what Goethe had in mind was one of a series of quartet performances organised in Berlin by Karl Möser, at first informally, as an outgrowth of a tradition of chamber and orchestral concerts he had initiated in 1812, and continued on a more permanent footing from the mid-1820s.
This book presents the proceedings of a meeting ‘New Challenges to Health: The Threat of Virus Infection’ organized by the Society for General Microbiology at Heriot- Watt University, Edinburgh, in March 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to review the continuing threat of viruses (and prions) to human and animal health. Although several virus diseases have been controlled by vaccination (such as polio, measles, mumps, rubella and yellow fever) and one (smallpox) has been eradicated, viruses remain a potent threat to human and animal health due to their ability to evolve and adapt rapidly. For viruses such as influenza and HIV, the ability to undergo rapid antigenic variation enables them to evade existing immunity and cause disease. Viruses may adapt to new situations, such as changes in the population density of human, animal or insect hosts, or the presence of substantial numbers of immunosuppressed individuals, and cause disease where hitherto they were unable to do so. Rapid virus evolution also enables virus strains to arise that are resistant to existing antiviral drugs. The book starts with a consideration of the mathematical modelling of epidemic virus infections, and the surveillance and emergence of virus infections. There follow chapters that review the molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which viruses and prions may induce disease. These include influenza and HIV, the devastating haemorrhagic diseases caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses, prion diseases such as BSE and variant CJD, certain psychiatric illness, and how the emergence of drug-resistant strains of virus poses a major problem for antiviral chemotherapy.
Mozart's first string quartet, K.80 in G, was completed at an inn in the northern Italian village of Lodi on 15 March 1770, ‘at 7 o'clock in the evening’ according to an annotation on the autograph manuscript. In a letter of 24 March 1778 Mozart reminded his father of the piece, and explained that he had arranged for copies of it to be made for Baron Otto Heinrich von Gemmingen-Homberg (1753–1836), a government official in Mannheim. Between 13 December 1769 and 28 March 1771 Mozart and his father were on tour in Italy. For Wolfgang this was a period of invaluable exposure to Italian operatic styles which bore fruit in commissions to compose two operas for Milan: Mitridate, re di Ponto (first performed on 26 December 1770) and the serenata, Ascanio in Alba (17 October 1771), to celebrate the marriage of Archduke Ferdinand. The Mozarts made a second journey (to supervise arrangements for Ascanio) between (mid?) August and 15 December 1771, and a third (24 October 1772 to 13 March 1773) to attend rehearsals for Lucio Silla.
During these Italian visits Mozart encountered such diverse personalities as Giovanni Battista Sammartini (c. 1700–1775) and Padre Giovanni Battista Martini (1706–84), major figures in eighteenth-century Italian composition and musical theory. Leopold recalls a meeting with the former in a letter from Milan dated 10 February 1770: ‘It would take too long to describe in detail the evidence of his knowledge which Wolfgang has given in the presence of Maestro Sammartini and a number of the most brilliant people, and of how he has amazed them’.