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A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
The frost of December 1860 caused serious damage to trees and shrubs in the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh. On the morning of 24th December, Fahrenheit's thermometer stood at 6° below zero according to the Kew standard. An account of the injury inflicted has been already published in the Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. It has been stated that the great cold in the garden, as compared with other places near Edinburgh, may be accounted for by its low sheltered situation, and the descent of the heavy cold atmosphere from the more elevated localities around.