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This article describes our qualitative research on the follow-up of 10 children, 5 years into recovery after cardiac surgery. The research was driven by a multi-disciplinary team of medical anthropologists, cardiologists, and an intensive care specialist and was based at the Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital where they underwent surgeries. The research sought to answer two questions; first, could we successfully maintain contact with and follow up the children; the second – which will be answered in future papers – asked what life was like for them and their families during surgery and later recovery. The results are presented as a discussion on the themes that arose in our engagement and analysis and not as clinical evidence. These showed that elective surgery although significantly delayed was successful, and all children were followed up at their medical appointments. The researchers, however, were unable to establish follow-up with all families over the duration of the study. In the final round of interviews in the respondents’ homes, of 10 children, we remained in contact with seven. The discussion argues that effective communication and access to these children was often compromised by their coming from the poorer communities in the Cape Town metropolitan region, making them even more vulnerable during their recovery periods.
Enlist™ cotton contains the aad-12 and pat genes that confer resistance to 2,4-D and glufosinate, respectively. Thirty-three field trials were conducted focused on Enlist cotton injury from glufosinate as affected by cotton growth stage, application rate, and single or sequential applications. Maximum injury from a single application of typical 1X (542 g ae ha-1) and 2X use rates was 3 and 13%, respectively, regardless of growth stage. Injury from sequential applications of 1X or 2X rates was equivalent to single applications. Similar injury was observed with four commercial formulations of glufosinate. Cotton yield was never affected by glufosinate. This research demonstrates Enlist™ cotton has robust resistance to glufosinate at rates at least twice the typical use rate when applied once or twice at growth stages ranging from 2 to 12 leaves.
The exotic shrub red sesbania is an increasingly problematic weed in riparian and wetland ecosystems of California. Current control methods focus on manual removal, followed by herbicide application. Although this method effectively removes mature stands, the control is temporary because the presence of a large seed bank results in rapid germination and growth of new seedlings. We measured the density of seed banks beneath stands of varying densities and evaluated the potential of tarping and inundation for control of red sesbania seed banks. As expected, the abundance of viable red sesbania seeds in the soil was significantly greater beneath high-density stands than it was beneath low-density stands. Results for inundation and tarping experiments were mixed. Sustained inundation significantly decreased survivorship of germinated seeds compared with the control, as well as causing a statistically significant reduction in germination. Seven months after tarping, during the fall/winter growing season, there was no significant effect on red sesbania seedling abundance, stump resprout abundance, or height. Germination in the laboratory was significantly reduced by extended exposure to temperatures of 60 C, although lower temperatures did not reduce germination. Red sesbania appears to be resilient to tarping as a control method, at least in the settings studied.
We present simulation results from a version of the Regional Ocean Modeling System modified for ice shelf/ocean interaction, including the parameterisation of basal melting by molecular diffusion alone. Simulations investigate the differences in melting for an idealised ice shelf experiencing a range of cold to hot ocean cavity conditions. Both the pattern of melt and the location of maximum melt shift due to changes in the buoyancy-driven circulation, in a different way to previous studies. Tidal forcing increases both the circulation strength and melting, with the strongest impact on the cold cavity case. Our results highlight the importance of including a complete melt parameterisation and tidal forcing. In response to the 2.4°C ocean warming initially applied to a cold cavity ice shelf, we find that melting will increase by about an order of magnitude (24 × with tides and 41 × without tides).
Excavations to the east of the Roman fort of Inveresk in 2010 partly uncovered remains of a Mithraeum — the first from Scotland and the earliest securely dated example from Britain. A large rectangular sunken feature with lateral benches contained two altars buried face down at its north-western end. One was dedicated to Mithras, with iconography of both Mithras and Apollo as well as libation vessels. The other was dedicated to Sol, with a frieze above showing the Four Seasons. The Sol altar had a recess in the rear for a light which would have shone through his pierced rays, eyes, mouth and nose. Remains of an iron rod behind the nose hint at a more complex arrangement to create special visual or acoustic effects. Paint and plaster traces were recorded on both altars. The dedicator, G(aius) Cas(sius) Fla(…), a centurion, may have been in command of the garrison or of a legionary detachment. Stylistic links, especially in letter form, connect the work to sculptors of Legio XX. The stones and pigments are most likely from local sources. Little of the setting could be explored but there were traces of a precinct. A pit beside the Mithraeum included a large part of a well-used fineware beaker, which represented a deliberate offering. The Supplementary Material available online (http://journals.cambridge.org/bri) contains detailed descriptions of the altars, observations on the stone-working technology, lithology and pigment analysis, with extensive illustrations.
The development of petroleum resources in the UK is not a new phenomenon. Off shore exploration began in the mid-1960s, but the exploitation of conventional hydrocarbons onshore dates back to the end of the First World War, and oil shales were exploited in Scotland for over a century from the middle of the 19th century. Current daily production stands at around 20,000–25,000 barrels of oil equivalent (boe). Despite the popular perception that the development of shale gas will involve the deployment of technologies new to the UK, industry and regulators have already had experience of HF (hydraulic facturing) and directional drilling (DD) in the extraction of conventional petroleum activities. Of the more than 2,000 wells drilled onshore, approximately 200 of those have undergone HF. Indeed, the combination of HF and DD enabled the development in 1979 of the Wytch Farm Field in Dorset, Europe's largest onshore producing field. However, exploration for gas from shale reservoirs (shale gas) has been minimal to date, in part due to public concerns about the technologies involved and the adequacy of the current regulatory framework to prevent environmental harm, including groundwater contamination.
Shale gas, and its associated activity of HF was first brought to the attention of the UK public in the spring of 2011, when Cuadrilla resources undertook HF of an exploration well at Preese Hall, near Blackpool. This HF triggered two mild seismic events in April and May, and resulted in the UK Government imposing a temporary moratorium on shale gas activities while a review of the risks related to HF was undertaken. The Preese Hall incident and its link to HF triggered what has now become a tsunami of community concern and activism, thrusting the activity of HF and the development of shale gas into the spotlight.
In response to the Preese Hall incident a study was undertaken by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering (RS & RAE), focusing on the major risks associated with HF as a method of extracting shale gas in the UK. The outcomes of the study were made available in the publication Shale Gas Extraction in the UK: A Review of Hydraulic Fracturing (the RS & RAE Review).
The Future of Shale Gas in the United Kingdom
Tina Hunter, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom,
Emre Úsenmez, Lecturer in Oil and Gas Law and an Associate at the Aberdeen University Centre for Energy Law, United Kingdom,
John Paterson, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is poised tentatively on the edge of shale gas development. The first steps in this direction at Preese Hall near Blackpool in the spring of 2011 resulted in two minor seismic events that not only prompted government and academic inquiries, but also heralded in an era of public objection to shale gas development in the UK in general, and to the technique of hydraulic fracturing (HF), or ‘fracking’, in particular. Despite suggestions that the tremors induced were minor, the UK government clearly felt compelled to respond to public concerns.
The legal framework regulating the exploration for and production of shale gas was immediately subjected to close scrutiny. A temporary moratorium was imposed while the Preese Hall incident was investigated under the auspices of the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering (RS & RAE), the outcome of which was published as Shale Gas Extraction in the UK: A Review of Hydraulic Fracturing (the review). In addition, Cuadrilla, the operator of the shale gas exploration well at Preese Hall, commissioned a series of studies to examine to possible relationship between hydraulic fracturing and seismic activity. The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) requested a review of these reports by three experienced academics and practitioners: Professor Peter Styles of Keele University, Dr Brian Baptie of the British Geological Survey, and Dr Christopher Green of G Frac Technologies (the expert team). The resultant report, Preese Hall Shale Gas Fracturing: Review and Recommendations for Induced Seismic Mitigation, addressed the question of whether HF as a practice in shale gas development is safe. It focused on aquifer contamination, well integrity and seismicity.
Following this comprehensive review of shale gas activites in the UK, some regulatory reform occurred and the moratorium was lift ed. However, the review, and subsequent legislative reform has so far failed to quell the public concerns regarding shale gas exploration. Such concern was displayed in the summer of 2013 at Balcombe, England in relation to the granting of permission to Cuadrilla to drill a shale gas exploration well within Petroleum and Development Licence (PEDL) 244 at a vertical depth of approximately 3,000 feet with a horizontal leg. Whilst the test well was commenced in August 2013, it was later scaled back due to the prolonged public protest.
The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of the attribution model (Corrigan, Markowitz, Watson, Rowan & Kubiak, 2003; Weiner, 1995) in a Chinese cultural context to explain Chinese college students’ perceptions of discrimination toward people with mental illness. A total of 293 college students (male = 142; female = 151; age from 18 to 22) completed an Attribution Questionnaire (AQ) after reading vignettes, consisting of a male who either used illicit drugs or had a traumatic brain injury. Data were analysed using a hierarchical regression to determine the amount of variance accounted for in discriminatory behaviours by the attribution model. The results showed, when controlling for all other factors, that controllability and the three emotions (pity, anger, and fear) were found to be significant predictors of discrimination. The relationship between controllability, responsibility, and discrimination was not consistent with the attribution model since responsibility did not mediate the controllability of cause. These results provide support for the idea that disability attributions are culturally influenced.
New radiocarbon dates for the Neolithic settlement at Pool on Sanday, Orkney, are interpreted in a formal chronological framework. Phases 2.2 and 2.3, during which flat-based Grooved Ware pottery with incised decoration developed, have been modelled as probably dating to between the 31st and 28th centuries cal bc. There followed a hiatus of a century or so, before the resumption of occupation in Phase 3, which has a different Grooved Ware style featuring the use of applied decoration. This has been modelled as probably dating from the 26th to the 24th centuries cal bc. The implications of these results are discussed for the emergence and development of Grooved Ware, and for the trajectory of settlement and monumentality on Sanday.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.
Observations of the water level in Beaver Lake, an epishelf lake in East Antarctica, show a regular tidal signal that is lagged and attenuated from the tides beneath the adjacent Amery Ice Shelf. The phase lag and amplitude attenuation can be created by a narrow inlet connection between Beaver Lake and the cavity beneath the Amery Ice Shelf. A forced linear damped oscillator is used to determine the inlet dimensions that are required to produce the observed phase lag and amplitude attenuation. The model shows that the observations are consistent with a tidal flow that is restricted by the drag created by flow in the narrow inlet. Analysis shows that the phase lag and amplitude attenuation of the tides in Beaver Lake has increased over the years 1991-2002, probably due to a thickening of the overlying ice shelf. The response is sensitive to subtle variations in the dimensions of the inlet.
This chapter examines new forms of regulating the ‘antisocial’ conduct of individuals in the United Kingdom which have emerged over the last fifteen years. These forms of contemporary regulation have been characterized by a greater emphasis on directive, supervisory and punitive policy tools, including a reliance on sanctions (Schram et al. 2008). What has emerged is a move away from a purely criminal law model to an increasing reliance on other forms of legal regulation of conduct, including hybrid models where criminal and civil law increasingly overlap (Ashworth 2000). There has been a move away from simply increasing sanctions for past ‘bad’ behaviour (whether criminal or civil), towards requiring subjects to submit to programmes which seek to reform their behaviour into the future. While it may be argued that in criminal legal punishment there has always been an element which seeks to reform the offender, what is unique about these new forms of governance is that they are not linked to criminal law sanctions following from conviction by the court, but rather to the civil law (though in some cases criminal sanctions may eventually result for failure to comply).
These developments may be located within a historical tradition of managing marginalized populations and the use of the welfare state and welfare sanctions to reform the behaviour of problematized populations dating back to the late 1800s (Deacon 2004; O'Malley 2009).
The Paleogene Order Taeniodonta Cope, 1876—peculiar heavy-bodied mammals, some with evergrowing cheek teeth—are grouped with the Late Cretaceous eutherian Cimolestes Marsh, 1889, along with a host of other taxa in a superordinal group, the Cimolesta. Taeniodonts were thought to have arisen from Cimolestes indirectly, through Paleocene Procerberus Sloan and Van Valen, 1965. The recently described Paleocene Alveugena Eberle, 1999, until now known only from the upper dentition, has been put forth as a transitional form between cimolestids and taeniodonts on phylogenetic and biostratigraphic grounds. An older taeniodont, the Late Cretaceous Schowalteria Fox and Naylor, 2003, has since been described, complicating taeniodont origins. We describe here a lower jaw that we refer to Alveugena from the lower part of the Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota. The lower jaw comes from strata of early Early Paleocene age (Puercan 1 North American Land Mammal Age) ~8.5 m above a Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, identified using palynological criteria. A cladistic analysis is here presented using new data on Schowalteria and Alveugena, added to that of Cimolestes, Procerberus formicarum Sloan and Van Valen, 1965, P. grandis Middleton and Dewar, 2004, and Onychodectes. This analysis revealed Alveugena as the sister taxon of the taeniodonts but with a closer relationship to Cimolestes than Procerberus, suggesting that taeniodonts evolved from a Cimolestes-like ancestor. We discuss the age relations of early taeniodonts and related taxa and propose a scenario of ancestor-descendent relations that minimizes, but does not eliminate, implied stratigraphic gaps.