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Studies that reveal detailed information about trilobite growth, particularly early developmental stages, are crucial for improving our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within this iconic group of fossil arthropods. Here we document an essentially complete ontogeny of the trilobite Redlichia cf. versabunda from the Cambrian Series 2 (late Stage 4) Ramsay Limestone of Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, including some of the best-preserved protaspides (the earliest biomineralized trilobite larval stage) known for any Cambrian trilobite. These protaspid stages exhibit similar morphological characteristics to many other taxa within the Suborder Redlichiina, especially to closely related species such as Metaredlichia cylindrica from the early Cambrian period of China. Morphological patterns observed across early developmental stages of different groups within the Order Redlichiida are discussed. Although redlichiine protaspides exhibit similar overall morphologies, certain ontogenetic characters within this suborder have potential phylogenetic signal, with different superfamilies characterized by unique trait combinations in these early growth stages.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
This work investigated the photophysical pathways for light absorption, charge generation, and charge separation in donor–acceptor nanoparticle blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and indene-C60-bisadduct. Optical modeling combined with steady-state and time-resolved optoelectronic characterization revealed that the nanoparticle blends experience a photocurrent limited to 60% of a bulk solution mixture. This discrepancy resulted from imperfect free charge generation inside the nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and chemically resolved X-ray mapping showed that enhanced miscibility of materials did improve the donor–acceptor blending at the center of the nanoparticles; however, a residual shell of almost pure donor still restricted energy generation from these nanoparticles.
The scarcity of Romano-British human remains from north-west England has hindered understanding of burial practice in this region. Here, we report on the excavation of human and non-human animal remains1 and material culture from Dog Hole Cave, Haverbrack. Foetal and neonatal infants had been interred alongside a horse burial and puppies, lambs, calves and piglets in the very latest Iron Age to early Romano-British period, while the mid- to late Roman period is characterised by burials of older individuals with copper-alloy jewellery and beads. This material culture is more characteristic of urban sites, while isotope analysis indicates that the later individuals were largely from the local area. We discuss these results in terms of burial ritual in Cumbria and rural acculturation. Supplementary material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000136), and contains further information about the site and excavations, small finds, zooarchaeology, human osteology, site taphonomy, the palaeoenvironment, isotope methods and analysis, and finds listed in Benson and Bland 1963.
Mutual responsiveness is necessary to sustain a close relationship and, to achieve it, people must protect their overall motivation to act in a caring way against the costs naturally arising from the challenges of maintaining interdependence. These challenges are universal and require solutions that constitute relatively automatic habit structures. The solutions allow people to “keep their eyes on the prize” and sustain their overall rewards without being distracted by the localized costs that occur along the way. For instance, one important challenge involves partners’ behavior that will on occasion interfere with one’s personal goals, by either pursuing their own interests first or failing to coordinate dyadic goals. In a case of motivation cognition, the automatic response to such experiences is to rationalize the negative, costly behavior by exaggerating the partners’ positive features and compensating cognitively for it. However, consistent with the MODE model, if people have the cognitive resources for deliberation, those whose broader goals are more self-protective rather than connective will overturn the pro-relationship impulses, to their ultimate detriment. Research exploring three different automatic procedural rules that illustrate this process of motivated cognition will be described.
Urban areas generate 80 per cent of global GDP (CBD, 1992; Ammann, 2016; Gressel, 2007) and no country has developed without urbanisation, according to Paul Collier (Dobbs et al., 2012; Collier, 2015). Just 2 per cent of the world’s population was urbanised in 1800; the figure passed 50 per cent by 2008, and on current trends it will reach 60 per cent by 2030. Virtually all this urban future growth will take place in developing countries, emulating Western Europe and North America, so that by 2025 it is estimated that 235 million households earning more than US$20,000 pa ppp will live in cities in the emerging economies, compared to 210 million in cities in the developed regions (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2013). Cities are able to harness economies of scale and specialisation through the economies of agglomeration, but they consume 75 per cent of the world’s energy and are responsible for up to 70 per cent of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) (Satterthwaite, 2008).
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
This paper examines retirement saving policy for independent – or contingent – workers, a growing segment of the workforce. Because few of these workers are covered by employer-sponsored retirement plans, they often do not benefit from payroll deduction, employer matching contributions, automatic enrollment, and other provisions that encourage retirement saving. Better use of fintech, judicious changes to tax policy, and expanded Automatic IRAs would help independent workers save for retirement. In addition, we propose the creation of retirement saving accounts that attach to the worker as a supplement to, and possible replacement for, the current system of employer-sponsored accounts.
Background: Despite the global impact of bipolar disorder (BD), treatment success is limited. Challenges include syndromal and subsyndromal mood instability, comorbid anxiety, and uncertainty around mechanisms to target. The Oxford Mood Action Psychology Programme (OxMAPP) offered a novel approach within a cognitive behavioural framework, via mental imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT). Aims: This clinical audit evaluated referral rates, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction with the OxMAPP service. Method: Eleven outpatients with BD received ImCT in addition to standard psychiatric care. Mood data were collected weekly from 6 months pre-treatment to 6 months post-treatment via routine mood monitoring. Anxiety was measured weekly from start of treatment until 1 month post-treatment. Patient feedback was provided via questionnaire. Results: Referral and treatment uptake rates indicated acceptability to referrers and patients. From pre- to post-treatment, there was (i) a significant reduction in the duration of depressive episode relapses, and (ii) a non-significant trend towards a reduction in the number of episodes, with small to medium effect size. There was a large effect size for the reduction in weekly anxiety symptoms from assessment to 1 month follow-up. Patient feedback indicated high levels of satisfaction with ImCT, and underscored the importance of the mental imagery focus. Conclusions: This clinical audit provides preliminary evidence that ImCT can help improve depressive and anxiety symptoms in BD as part of integrated clinical care, with high patient satisfaction and acceptability. Formal assessment designs are needed to further test the feasibility and efficacy of the new ImCT treatment on anxiety and mood instability.
Textual data are plagued by underreporting bias. For example, news sources often fail to report human rights violations. Cook et al. propose a multi-source estimator to gauge, and to account for, the underreporting of state repression events within human codings of news texts produced by the Agence France-Presse and Associated Press. We evaluate this estimator with Monte Carlo experiments, and then use it to compare the prevalence and seriousness of underreporting when comparable texts are machine coded and recorded in the World-Integrated Crisis Early Warning System dataset. We replicate Cook et al.’s investigation of human-coded state repression events with our machine-coded events, and validate both models against an external measure of human rights protections in Africa. We then use the Cook et al. estimator to gauge the seriousness and prevalence of underreporting in machine and human-coded event data on human rights violations in Colombia. We find in both applications that machine-coded data are as valid as human-coded data.
In her landmark study, The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites, Elizabeth Prettejohn identifies “the burgeoning Victorian interest in the sciences” as one of Pre-Raphaelite art's “most important contemporary contexts” (251). Many critics have seen the at times remorseless detail of early Pre-Raphaelite painting and poetry as analogous to science. As Tim Barringer puts it, “The attention which hard-edged Pre-Raphaelite naturalism of the 1850s paid to observing the individual object encapsulates [science's] questioning, empirical spirit” (16). A major exhibition of Pre-Raphaelite landscape painting in London, Berlin, and Madrid in 2004 to 2005 paid close attention to geology, meteorology, and natural history (Staley et al.). There have been a growing number of studies of specific aspects of the relationship between Pre-Raphaelitism and science, with individual chapters or articles published on Pre-Raphaelitism and phrenology (Grilli), physiognomy (Hartley 80–109) and ethnography (Pointon), and on specific painters, including John Everett Millais (Codell) and John Brett (Payne 104–23). Through this work, recent critics have begun to rediscover the relationship between Pre-Raphaelitism and science which Victorian critics favourable to the movement saw as fundamental to it (see also Rosenfeld). Writing in the Fortnightly Review in 1867, Sidney Colvin remarked that “the scientific spirit, coupled with the disgust of earnest men at academic pretensions and their reaction from academic principles, constituted the very essence of præ-Raphaelitism” (470–71).
My aim in this chapter is to describe the transition between John Major and Tony Blair in the area of Northern Ireland policy, from the perspective of someone who lived through it at close quarters. What stayed the same, and what was different? Why was Blair able to take what Major had started through to a successful conclusion? Did they have different views, or was it just their political circumstances that were different? These are questions that I will consider and elaborate on, but, before I do so, it is important to provide some background context to political conditions at the early stages of the peace process and the influences on the process.
The Downing Street context
I took over from Rod Lyne as John Major's overseas adviser at the beginning of 1996. The role was wide-ranging, covering all international and defence affairs, including overseas aid, and was all-consuming. There was little substantive policy support for the role in 10 Downing Street at that stage, although the administrative back-up was formidable. While there was advice to be had in some areas from the Cabinet Office Overseas and Defence Secretariat, I had only one Foreign Office assistant of my own to help me cover everything going on in the world. Even that was a relative novelty – my predecessors until Rod Lyne had had no such help, reflecting the then prevailing wisdom that Number 10 advisers should essentially be intelligent links between the prime minister and his ministries rather than independent sources of advice and policy expertise. All this may seem rather quaint in the age of a National Security Council, and it no longer quite represented the reality even then (think of Charles Powell's role with Mrs Thatcher). But the sensible idea behind it was to stop overweening and overambitious prime ministerial advisers second-guessing line departments and ministers or, even worse, developing rival policies, as was seen to be the damaging case in Washington, with the national security advisor constantly at the elbow of the president, backed by the resources of their National Security Council, and vying counter-productively with the State Department and the Pentagon for influence.
The ability of parasites to cause disease has always been an important reason to study them, and the teaching of parasitology has almost always been stimulated by conditions conducive to disease, such as war or climate change. Currently, zoonotic diseases emerging from altered ecosystems, or carried by arthropod vectors spreading their ranges due to climate changes, supply that stimulation. However, most of us who teach, or have taught, parasitology have chosen that topic because of the fascinating life cycles of many parasites and their complex interactions with their hosts. Much of that fascination stemmed from learning how parasites can affect the population dynamics of their hosts, or the behavior of the hosts, or even the evolution of their hosts. In addition, that fascination was based on how much parasites could tell us about the life of their hosts, such as their diet, travels, or evolution. Or even of the earth itself – some of the earliest evidence for continental drift was the similarity in parasites of amphibians in Africa and South America. Examples of all of these influences are provided in this book.
Many of the systems that parasitologists have used to show these fascinating features have become relatively easy to study due to new techniques, such as those in genomics and proteomics, which have provided new and more powerful ways to study systematics, evolution, and host–parasite relationships. This has attracted the attention of biologists with a wide variety of backgrounds, so that much of the very interesting work done on host–parasite systems recently has been done by those trained in other specialties, such as ecology, behavior, neurophysiology, and evolutionary biology. Very few of the students in senior-level parasitology courses will go on for further study in parasitology, but many more will go on for further study in other biological specialties. Our courses, books, readings, and other materials used in our classes should be chosen to expose those students to the usefulness of parasites in investigations in their chosen fields.
Issues in the public presentation and interpretation of the archaeology of Hadrian's Wall and other frontiers of the Roman Empire are explored and addressed here. A central theme is the need for interpretation to be people-focussed, and for visitors to be engaged through narratives and approaches which help them connect with figures in the past: daily life, relationships, craft skills, communications, resonances with modern frontiers and modern issues all provide means of helping an audience to connect, delivering a greater understanding, better visitor experiences, increased visiting and spend, and an enhanced awareness of the need to protect and conserve our heritage. Topics covered include re-enactment, virtual and physical reconstruction, multi-media, smartphones, interpretation planning and design; while new evidence from audience research is also presented to show how visitors respond to different strategies of engagement. Nigel Mills is Director, World Heritage and Access, The Hadrian's Wall Trust. Contributors: Genevieve Adkins, M.C. Bishop, Lucie Branczik, David J. Breeze, Mike Corbishley, Jim Devine, Erik Dobat, Matthias Flück, Christof Flügel, Snezana Golubovic, Susan Greaney, Tom Hazenberg, Don Henson, Richard Hingley, Nicky Holmes, Martin Kemkes, Miomir Korac, Michaela Kronberger, Nigel Mills, Jürgen Obmann, Tim Padley, John Scott, R. Michael Spearman, Jürgen Trumm, Sandra Walkshofer, Christopher Young.
Many visitors (and would-be visitors) to the Antonine Wall World Heritage Site find the task of interpreting and understanding the visible archaeological remains somewhat challenging. Over a number of years in the role of Head of Multimedia in the Hunterian Museum, and as an Associate Lecturer with the School of Computing Science at the University of Glasgow, the author has been exploring ways of addressing this issue. Multimedia technologies have the potential to aid in the presentation and interpretation of archaeological sites, and their associated artefacts held in local museums collections, for a wide range of public audiences.
The coming of age of interactive digital information and communication technologies has provided cultural heritage organisations with a range of opportunities to utilise these ever more flexible digital technologies to provide access to their cultural resources in increasingly innovative ways. The advent of the World Wide Web, over 20 years ago now, presented heritage organisations with a unique opportunity to provide access to their resources to a truly global audience. Resources which hitherto were only available to those fortunate enough to live within travelling distance of archaeological sites or museum collections were suddenly accessible via the then new medium of web technology. Moreover, many museums around the world saw the potential to turn this new medium into additional virtual display space in which to reveal many artefacts that had been languishing in storage or in reserve collections.