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The reported associations between birth weight and childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the relationship between birth weight and CVD risk factors at 11 years of age. This study used longitudinally linked data from three cross-sectional datasets (N = 22,136) in West Virginia; analysis was restricted to children born full-term (N = 19,583). The outcome variables included resting blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)]. Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusting for child’s body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and lifestyle characteristics. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant association between birth weight and SBP, DBP, HDL, and TG. When adjusted for the child’s BMI, the association between birth weight and HDL [b = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.18) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] and between birth weight and TG [b = –0.007 (–0.008, –0.005) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] remained statistically significant. In the fully adjusted model, low birth weight was associated with higher LDL, non-HDL, and TGs, and lower HDL levels. The child’s current BMI at 11 years of age partially (for HDL, non-HDL, and TG) and fully mediated (for SBP and DBP) the relationship between birth weight and select CVD risk factors. While effects were modest, these risk factors may persist and amplify with age, leading to potentially unfavorable consequences in later adulthood.
Uveitis is inflammation inside the eye whose underlying cause may be infectious or non-infectious. The objective of our study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the dexamethasone implant and adalimumab compared with current practice (immunosuppressants and systemic corticosteroids) in patients with non-infectious intermediate, posterior or pan-uveitis.
A Markov model was built to estimate costs and benefits of the interventions. Systematic reviews were performed to identify the relevant evidence. Quality of life data collected in three key randomized-controlled trials (1-3) was used to estimate the interventions effectiveness compared with the trials comparator arms, which consisted of placebo plus limited current practice (LCP). An indirect treatment comparison between adalimumab and dexamethasone was considered inappropriate due to lack of necessary evidence. For adalimumab, patients with active and inactive uveitis were considered separately. Due to the short duration of the trials, the rate of blindness, an important complication of uveitis, was highly uncertain. Substantial exploratory analyses were therefore undertaken. The analysis was performed from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal Social Services (PSS). Costs were calculated based on standard United Kingdom sources.
The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of dexamethasone compared with LCP was GBP19,509 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. The estimated ICER of adalimumab compared with LCP was GBP94,523 and GBP317,547 per QALY in patients with active and inactive uveitis respectively. The factors with the largest impact upon the ICERs were the rate of blindness and the proportion of cases of blindness avoided by interventions.
Dexamethasone and adalimumab resulted in health gains, but at significant extra costs, especially adalimumab which is unlikely to be considered a cost-effective use of NHS resources. The results of the analysis are highly uncertain due to the limited availability of evidence on: the comparative effectiveness of dexamethasone, adalimumab and current practice; the effectiveness of treatments in avoiding blindness; and, the effectiveness of interventions in different subgroups.
Dense, controlled-impedance, superconducting cables with small cross-sections are desirable, especially for quantum computing applications. In this study, superconductivity properties, rf microwave response and mechanical reliability performance of embedded Nb dc cables and Nb microstrip transmission line resonators with different thicknesses of polyimide PI-2611 encapsulation layers (0, 4 and 8 μm) have been investigated. Critical temperature (Tc) and critical current (Ic) of embedded Nb dc cables are ∼ 8.2 K and ∼ 0.2 A, respectively. Embedded Nb resonators yield high loaded quality factor (QL), with values as high as 14481 at ∼ 1.2 K and at a fundamental resonance of ∼ 2 GHz. From mechanical fatigue testing, we have observed that a polyimide encapsulation layer can effectively enhance the mechanical reliability of superconducting Nb flexible cables.
Targets have been developed to measure supersonic radiation transport in aerogel foams using absorption spectroscopy. The target consists of an aerogel foam uniformly doped with either titanium or scandium inserted into an undoped aerogel foam package. This creates a localized doped foam region to provide spatial resolution for the measurement. Development and characterization of the foams is a key challenge in addition to machining and assembling the two foams so they mate without gaps. The foam package is inserted into a beryllium sleeve and mounted on a gold hohlraum. The target is mounted to a holder created using additive manufacturing and mounted on a stalk. The manufacturing of the components, along with assembly and metrology of the target are described here.
Cathars have long been regarded as posing the most organised challenge to orthodox Catholicism in the medieval West, even as a "counter-Church" to orthodoxy in southern France and northern Italy. Their beliefs, understood to be inspired by Balkan dualism, are often seen as the most radical among medieval heresies. However, recent work has fiercely challenged this paradigm, arguing instead that "Catharism" was a construct of its persecutors, mis-named and mis-represented by generations of subsequent scholarship, and its supposedly radical views were a fantastical projection of the fears of orthodox commentators. This volume brings together a wide range of views from some of the most distinguished international scholars in the field, in order to address the debate directly while also opening up new areas for research. Focussing on dualism and anti-materialist beliefs in southern France, Italy and the Balkans, it considers a number of crucial issues. These include: what constitutes popular belief; how (and to what extent) societies of the past were based on the persecution of dissidents; and whether heresy can be seen as an invention of orthodoxy. At the same time, the essays shed new light on some key aspects of the political, cultural, religious and economic relationships between the Balkans and more western regions of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Antonio Sennis isSenior Lecturer in Medieval History at University College London Contributors: John H. Arnold, Peter Biller, Caterina Bruschi, David d'Avray, Jörg Feuchter, Bernard Hamilton, Robert I. Moore, MarkGregory Pegg, Rebecca Rist, Lucy Sackville, Antonio Sennis, Claire Taylor, Julien Théry-Astruc, Yuri Stoyanov
To evaluate the association between hospital room square footage and acquisition of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
A case-control study was conducted at a university hospital during the calendar year of 2011. Case patients were adult inpatients with nosocomial CDI. Control patients were hospitalized patients without CDI and were randomly selected and matched to cases in a 2:1 ratio on the basis of hospital length of stay in 3-day strata. A multivariate model was developed using conditional logistic regression to evaluate risk factors for nosocomial CDI.
A total of 75 case patients and 150 control patients were included. On multivariate analyses, greater square footage of the hospital room was associated with a significantly increased risk of acquiring CDI (odds ratio for every 50 ft2 increase, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.75–5.16; P<.001). Other factors associated with an increased risk of CDI were location in a single room (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.31–9.05; P=.01), malignant tumor (4.56; 1.82–11.4; P=.001), and receipt of cefepime (2.48; 1.06–5.82; P=.04) or immunosuppressants (6.90; 2.07–23.0; P=.002) within the previous 30 days.
Greater room square footage increased the risk of acquisition of CDI in the hospital setting, likely owing to increased environmental contamination and/or difficulty in effective disinfection. Future studies are needed to determine feasible and effective cleaning protocols based on patient and room characteristics.