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Abstract presentations of scientific information at meetings are important for broadcasting new information. Publication of these studies should be the final goal, but minimal data exist documenting publication rates, especially for paediatric sub-speciality meetings. The goal of this study was to document the manuscript publication rate for paediatric cardiac echocardiography abstracts and to determine whether there were differences between abstracts that were published versus not published.
Paediatric cardiac echocardiography abstracts presented from 2007 to 2011 at the American Society of Echocardiography Meetings were reviewed. Characteristics of the abstracts were noted. A Medline/Pubmed search was performed using keywords, first author, and senior author criteria to determine publication. Fisher’s exact tests or χ2 tests were used for analysis.
A total of 194 abstracts were reviewed. In all, 27 abstracts were oral presentations and 167 were poster presentations. A total of 124 abstracts were prospective studies and 70 were retrospective studies; 11 abstracts were basic science studies and 183 were clinical studies. Altogether, 25 abstracts dealt with three-dimensional echocardiography, 15 with fetal echocardiography, 56 with deformation analysis, 79 with standard transthoracic echocardiography, and 19 were in the other category. A total of 73 abstracts were subsequently published – with a 37.6% publication rate – 2.1±1.7 years after initial presentation. There were no significant differences in publication rates based on the above-noted variables.
A paediatric cardiac echocardiography abstract publication rate of 37.6% is comparable to previous published publication rates for other meetings. No differences in variables analysed were noted between published versus unpublished abstracts.
We conducted a program of research to derive and test the reliability of a clinical prediction rule to identify high-risk older adults using paramedics’ observations.
We developed the Paramedics assessing Elders at Risk of Independence Loss (PERIL) checklist of 43 yes or no questions, including the Identifying Seniors at Risk (ISAR) tool items. We trained 1,185 paramedics from three Ontario services to use this checklist, and assessed inter-observer reliability in a convenience sample. The primary outcome, return to the ED, hospitalization, or death within one month was assessed using provincial databases. We derived a prediction rule using multivariable logistic regression.
We enrolled 1,065 subjects, of which 764 (71.7%) had complete data. Inter-observer reliability was good or excellent for 40/43 questions. We derived a four-item rule: 1) “Problems in the home contributing to adverse outcomes?” (OR 1.43); 2) “Called 911 in the last 30 days?” (OR 1.72); 3) male (OR 1.38) and 4) lacks social support (OR 1.4). The PERIL rule performed better than a proxy measure of clinical judgment (AUC 0.62 vs. 0.56, p=0.02) and adherence was better for PERIL than for ISAR.
The four-item PERIL rule has good inter-observer reliability and adherence, and had advantages compared to a proxy measure of clinical judgment. The ISAR is an acceptable alternative, but adherence may be lower. If future research validates the PERIL rule, it could be used by emergency physicians and paramedic services to target preventative interventions for seniors identified as high-risk.
Despite evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological
therapies for bipolar disorder no psychological interventions have been
specifically designed to enhance personal recovery for individuals with
recent-onset bipolar disorder.
A pilot study to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a new
intervention, recovery-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT),
designed in collaboration with individuals with recent-onset bipolar
disorder intended to improve clinical and personal recovery outcomes.
A single, blind randomised controlled trial compared treatment as usual
(TAU) with recovery-focused CBT plus TAU (n = 67).
Recruitment and follow-up rates within 10% of pre-planned targets to
12-month follow-up were achieved. An average of 14.15 h (s.d. = 4.21) of
recovery-focused CBT were attended out of a potential maximum of 18 h.
Compared with TAU, recovery-focused CBT significantly improved personal
recovery up to 12-month follow-up (Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire mean
score 310.87, 95% CI 75.00–546.74 (s.e. = 120.34), P =
0.010, d=0.62) and increased time to any mood relapse
during up to 15 months follow-up (χ2 = 7.64,
P<0.006, estimated hazard ratio (HR) = 0.38, 95%
CI 0.18–0.78). Groups did not differ with respect to medication
Recovery-focused CBT seems promising with respect to feasibility and
potential clinical effectiveness. Clinical- and cost-effectiveness now
need to be reliably estimated in a definitive trial.
The UV-photoluminescence (PL) properties of GaN and ZnO nanocrystallites and nanocrystallite ensembles were studied utilizing micro-photoluminescence. We address the origin of the light emissions of the nanocrystallite as to whether it is due a bandgap or excitonic recombination process. The other topic presented here focuses on the interaction of the laser with a collective of crystallites; we address the phenomena of intensity saturation at a high density of laser excitations as well as the impact of the vacuum state on the PL characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the PL of both GaN and ZnO nanocrysallites is excitonic-like and very similar to the behavior of the free exciton in bulk materials. Additionally, we attribute the intensity saturation of GaN and ZnO to the laser heating and heat trapping which takes place in the enclosure of the nanocrystallite ensemble. In vacuum the PL energy was found to exhibit a strong PL energy redshift relative to the PL in air. We attribute the observed shift to a thermal effect and analyze it in terms of the conditions enabling a convective cooling in the ensemble: the mean free path of air in atmospheric pressure and in vacuum relative to the interparticle separation inside the ensemble.
John H. Morrison, Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA,
Patrick R. Hof, Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA,
Peter R. Rapp, Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA
In order to understand the neuropathology of normal aging, it is instructive to review the major elements of circuit degeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease. AD is characterized by senile plaque (SP) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation and extensive, yet selective, neuron death in the hippocampus and neocortex that leads to dramatic decline in cognitive abilities and memory. A more modest disruption of memory, referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or age-associated memory impairment (AAMI), occurs often in the context of normal aging, in humans, monkeys and rodents. However, unlike AD, significant neuron death does not appear to be the cause of AAMI. In AD, the neurons providing the connection between the entorhinal cortex and the dentate gyrus (e.g. the perforant path) are devastated, as are the neurons providing corticocortical circuits that interconnect association regions. Whereas the death of these same neurons appears to be minimal in normal aging, these same circuits and the corresponding circuits in animal models are vulnerable to sublethal age-related alterations in morphology, neurochemical phenotype and synaptic integrity that might impair function. Biochemical alterations of the synapse, such as shifts in distribution or abundance of NMDA receptors, may also contribute to memory impairment. The same brain regions are also responsive to circulating estrogen levels, and thus, critical interactions between reproductive senescence and brain aging may affect excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Importantly, some of the effects of estrogen on these neurons imply that certain synaptic alterations that accompany aging may be reversible.
Patrick R. Hof, Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology, Kastor Neurobiology of Aging Laboratories, and Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA,
Thierry Bussière, Elan Pharmaceuticals, South San Francisco, CA, USA,
John H. Morrison, Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology, Kastor Neurobiology of Aging Laboratories, and Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA
Due to the increasing longevity of the population across the world, a consistently high prevalence of age-related cognitive deficits has been reported in recent years. Numerous studies have shown that a variety of deficits can be observed clinically, ranging from absence of symptoms with preservation of cognitive and intellectual functions, to severe cognitive disturbances typical of dementia of the Alzheimer type. Alongside the ageing process, several morphological and pathological alterations have been described neuropathologically. The occurrence of the typical Alzheimer-like lesions, namely neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP), is the most obvious feature revealed by microscopic examination in the brain of elderly individuals (Fig. 7.1). However, the extent and distribution of these lesions differ from the classical pathological pattern seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fine morphological techniques have been used to demonstrate that neuronal and synaptic loss also occur during the normal ageing process of the brain. Moreover, changes affecting the cerebral vasculature are not classically described, although they may be an important factor contributing to the age-related deficit in brain function. Finally, subtle alterations in myelinated fibres can be detected in the brains of elderly individuals by using the most advanced in vivo imaging techniques.
NFT and SP distribution in normal ageing
NFT and SP are the two main neuropathological hallmarks required to ascertain the definitive diagnosis of AD (Mirra et al., 1993). However, several studies have shown that a substantial number of these AD-related changes are found in aged individuals with normal cognitive function, demonstrating that the pathological process must begin at an earlier stage when clinical detection is not yet possible (Table 7.1).
Research was conducted in 1997 and 1998 to evaluate narrow row spacing and glufosinate in glufosinate-resistant corn. Glufosinate-resistant corn was planted in 51- and 102-cm row spacings at the same plant populations. Herbicide treatments included glufosinate alone and in different herbicide combinations. Atrazine plus glufosinate enhanced Palmer amaranth control compared to glufosinate alone. Control of johnsongrass, ivyleaf morningglory, entireleaf morningglory, Texas panicum, smellmellon, browntop panicum, and toothed spurge with glufosinate was greater than 82%. Common sunflower control with glufosinate was greater than 95%. Atrazine followed by glufosinate applications provided at least 94% control of all species and was the most consistent herbicide system used. Row spacing had little effect on weed control. Crop injury to glufosinate-resistant corn was minimal with glufosinate and atrazine plus glufosinate combinations.
Previous immunohistochemical studies combined with retrograde tracing in macaque monkeys have demonstrated that corticocortical projections can be differentiated by their content of neurofilament protein. The present study analyzed the distribution of nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein in callosally projecting neurons located at the V1/V2 border. All of the retrogradely labeled neurons were located in layer III at the V1/V2 border and at an immediately adjacent zone of area V2. A quantitative analysis showed that the vast majority (almost 95%) of these interhemispheric projection neurons contain neurofilament protein immunoreactivity. This observation differs from data obtained in other sets of callosal connections, including homotypical interhemispheric projections in the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal association cortices, that were found to contain uniformly low proportions of neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons. Comparably, highly variable proportions of neurofilament protein-containing neurons have been reported in intrahemispheric corticocortical pathways, including feedforward and feedback visual connections. These results indicate that neurofilament protein is a prominent neurochemical feature that identifies a particular population of interhemispheric projection neurons at the V1/V2 border, and suggest that this biochemical attribute may be critical for the function of this subset of callosal neurons.
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