To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Dietary protein insufficiency has been linked to excessive TAG storage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in developing countries. Hepatic TAG accumulation following a low-protein diet may be due to altered peroxisomal, mitochondrial and gut microbiota function. Hepatic peroxisomes and mitochondria normally mediate metabolism of nutrients to provide energy and substrates for lipogenesis. Peroxisome biogenesis and activities can be modulated by odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) and SCFA that are derived from gut bacteria, for example, propionate and butyrate. Also produced during amino acid metabolism by peroxisomes and mitochondria, propionate and butyrate concentrations correlate inversely with risk of obesity, insulin resistance and NAFLD. In this horizon-scanning review, we have compiled available evidence on the effects of protein malnutrition on OCFA production, arising from loss in mitochondrial, peroxisomal and gut microbiota function, and its association with lipid accumulation in the liver. The methyl donor amino acid composition of dietary protein is an important contributor to liver function and lipid storage; the presence and abundance of dietary branched-chain amino acids can modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiome and, on the other hand, can affect protective OCFA and SCFA production in the liver. In preclinical animal models fed with low-protein diets, specific amino acid supplementation can ameliorate fatty liver disease. The association between low dietary protein intake and fatty liver disease is underexplored and merits further investigation, particularly in vulnerable groups with dietary protein restriction in developing countries.
SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, Pfor trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (Pfor trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.
Insomnia treatment using an internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy
for insomnia (CBT-I) program reduces depression symptoms, anxiety
symptoms and suicidal ideation. However, the speed, longevity and
consistency of these effects are unknown.
To test the following: whether the efficacy of online CBT-I was sustained
over 18 months; how rapidly the effects of CBT-I emerged; evidence for
distinct trajectories of change in depressive symptoms; and predictors of
A randomised controlled trial compared the 6-week Sleep Healthy Using the
Internet (SHUTi) CBT-I program to an attention control program. Adults
(N=1149) with clinical insomnia and subclinical
depression symptoms were recruited online from the Australian
Depression, anxiety and insomnia decreased significantly by week 4 of the
intervention period and remained significantly lower relative to control
for >18 months (between-group Cohen's d=0.63, 0.47,
0.55, respectively, at 18 months). Effects on suicidal ideation were only
short term. Two depression trajectories were identified using growth
mixture models: improving (95%) and stable/deteriorating (5%) symptoms.
More severe baseline depression, younger age and limited comfort with the
internet were associated with reduced odds of improvement.
Online CBT-I produced rapid and long-term symptom reduction in people
with subclinical depressive symptoms, although the initial effect on
suicidal ideation was not sustained.
A numerical study of the flow-induced vibration of two elastically mounted cylinders in tandem and staggered arrangements at Reynolds number
is presented. The cylinder centres are set at a streamwise distance of 1.5 cylinder diameters, placing the rear cylinder in the near-wake region of the front cylinder for the tandem arrangement. The cross-stream or lateral offset is varied between 0 and 5 cylinder diameters. The two cylinders are identical, with the same elastic mounting, and constrained to oscillate only in the cross-flow direction. The variation of flow behaviours is examined for static cylinders and for elastic mountings of a range of spring stiffnesses, or reduced velocity. At least seven major modes of flow response are identified, delineated by whether the oscillation is effectively symmetric, and the strength of the influence of the flow through the gap between the two cylinders. Submodes of these are also identified based on whether or not the flow remains periodic. More subtle temporal behaviours, such as period doubling, quasi-periodicity and chaos, are also identified and mapped. Across all of these regimes, the amplitudes of vibration and the magnitude of the fluid forces are quantified. The modes identified span the parameter space between two important limiting cases: two static bodies at varying lateral offset; and two elastically mounted bodies in a tandem configuration at varying spring stiffnesses. Some similarity in the response of extremely stiff or static bodies and extremely slack bodies is shown. This is explained by the fact that the slack bodies are free to move to an equilibrium position and stop, effectively becoming a static system. However, the most complex behaviour appears between these limits, when the bodies are in reasonably close proximity, and the natural structural frequency is close to the vortex shedding frequency of a single cylinder. This appears to be driven by the interplay between a series of time scales, including the vortex formation time, the advection time across the gap between the cylinders and the oscillation period of both bodies. This points out an important difference between this multi-body system and the classic single-cylinder vortex-induced vibration: two bodies in close proximity will not oscillate in a synchronised, periodic manner when their natural structural frequencies are close to the nominal vortex shedding frequency of a single cylinder.
In this paper, we place the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) into broader geo-political and economic context given the current Trump Administration's withdrawal from the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the loss of momentum for TTIP. Both TPP and TTIP sought to provide key tactical solutions to the particular trade/investment problems participating states faced. For the U.S. government, these free trade agreements also represented a geo-political undertaking, an attempt to once again set trade rules in light of deadlock in the WTO. Ultimately, the inability of the Obama Administration to successfully complete negotiations for and ratification of these two deals does not alter the underlying motivations that led to them in the first place. The stagnation of these deals, however, has intensified geo-economic and geo-strategic concerns: opening the door to rival articulations of trade governance and undermining U.S. credibility with its partners.
Both physical frailty and cognitive impairment predict death, but the joint effect of these two factors is uncertain. The objectives are to determine if the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Frailty Index (FI) predict death over a five-year interval after accounting for the effect of the other; and if there is an interaction in this effect.
An analysis of an existing prospective cohort study of 1,751 community living older adults followed over a five-year time frame. Age, gender, and education were self-reported. The predictor variables were the FI – a measure of frailty based on the “Accumulation of Deficits” model of frailty; and the MMSE. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for the outcome of time to death.
The unadjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) (95% CI) for mortality was 2.17 (1.69, 2.80) for those who were only cognitively impaired, 2.02 (1.53, 2.68) for those who were only frail, and 3.57 (2.75, 4.62) for those who were both frail and cognitively impaired with the reference group of those who were neither frail nor cognitively impaired. Adjusted for age, gender, and education, the HR (95% CI) was 1.49 (1.13. 1.95) for those who were only cognitively impaired, 1.81 (1.35, 2.41) for those who were only frail, and 2.28 (1.69, 3.09) for those who were both frail and cognitively impaired.
Both frailty and cognitive impairment are predictors of mortality and the effect is cumulative. There was no interaction in this effect.
The twentieth century, it is safe to say, has made all of us into deep historical pessimists.
– Francis Fukuyama
In the eighties […] painting seemed to show all the signs of internal exhaustion, or at least marked limits beyond which it was not possible to press.
– Arthur Danto
You can only be lost if you have no purpose.
– Thibault Malfete
When precisely the modern period begins and exactly what it means to be modern depend in part on whether we approach these questions from a historical, philosophical, or aesthetic perspective. For Fukuyama, modernity emerges from the political and philosophical revolutions of the Enlightenment and in the writings of Hegel and Marx on history; it is marked by changes in how the West thought about history and the progress of history. For Danto, modern thought begins with Descartes and Kant placing questions about the nature of thought itself at the center of intellectual discourse; but modernism as an artistic movement does not begin until sometime at the end of the nineteenth century, when artists make a similar self-reflexive move that deemphasizes mimetic representation of the world and makes aesthetic form and artistic representation itself the subject of art. However, by bringing the discrete intellectual fields of Fukuyama and Danto together, we may perceive a characteristic of modernity that runs through various strains and definitions of modernity. Both Fukuyama and Danto begin with a consideration of the pessimism that marks modern thought in their respective fields. Such pessimism is attached to the idea of modernity itself, where the modern thinker and artist senses that history was never teleological, never about progress toward a higher end, only about the discovery of the illusion of progress. Or where a feeling lingers that, while there may have been real progress once, now the progress of history and art and philosophy have come to an end, sadly divesting the artist and thinker of purpose and of struggle; a feeling of living in a world that, even if it is the end of some progressive plan, is an end that has proven disappointing. It is that pessimism, that quality, rather than any specific philosophical, historical, or aesthetic definition of modernity and modernism, to which many pop-cultural works about the Middle Ages respond.
The question of how modernity has influenced medievalism and how medievalism has influenced modernity is the theme of this volume. The opening essays examine the 2001 film Just Visiting's comments on modern anxieties via medievalism; conflations of modernity with both medievalism and the Middle Ages in rewriting sources; the emergence of modernity amid the post-World War I movement The MostNoble Order of Crusaders; António Sardinha's promotion of medievalism as an antidote to modernity; and Mercedes Rubio's medievalism in her feminist commentary on modernity. The eight subsequent articles build on this foundation while discussing remnants of medieval London amid its modern descendant; Michel Houellebecq's critique of medievalism through his 2011 novel La Carte et le territoire; historical authenticity in Michael Morrow's approach to performing medieval music; contemporary concerns in Ford Madox Brown and David Gentleman's murals; medieval Chester in Catherine A.M. Clarkeand Nayan Kulkarni's Hryre (2012); medieval influences on the formation of and debate about modern moral panics; medievalist considerations in modern repurposings of medieval anchorholds; andmedieval sources for Paddy Molloy's Here Be Dragons (2013). The articles thus test the essays' methods and conclusions, even as the essays offer fresh perspectives on the articles.
Karl Fugelso is Professor of Art History at Towson University in Baltimore, Maryland.
Contributors: Edward Breen, Katherine A. Brown, Catherine A.M. Clarke, Louise D'Arcens, Joshua Davies, John Lance Griffith, Mike Horswell, Pedro Martins, Paddy Molloy, Lisa Nalbone, Sarah Salih, Michelle M. Sauer, James L. Smith