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The association between dietary patterns (DP) and prevalence of hearing loss in men enrolled in the Caerphilly Prospective Study was investigated. During 1979–1983, the study recruited 2512 men aged 45–59 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and a 7-d weighed food intake (WI) in a 30 % subsample. Five years later, pure-tone unaided audiometric threshold was assessed at 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified three DP and multiple logistic and ordinal logistic regression models examined the association with hearing loss (defined as pure-tone average of frequencies 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz >25 dB). Traditional, healthy and high-sugar/low-alcohol DP were found with both FFQ and WI data. With the FFQ data, fully adjusted models demonstrated significant inverse association between the healthy DP and hearing loss both as a dichotomous variable (OR=0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·90; P<0·001) and as an ordinal variable (OR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·94; P<0·001). With the WI data, fully adjusted models showed a significant and inverse association between the healthy DP and hearing loss (OR=0·85; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·99; P<0·03), and a significant association between the traditional DP (per fifth increase) and hearing loss both as a dichotomous variable (OR=1·18; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·35; P=0·02) and as an ordinal variable (OR=1·17; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·33; P=0·02). A healthy DP was significantly and inversely associated with hearing loss in older men. The role of diet in age-related hearing loss warrants further investigation.
This article takes as its subject the remarkable diary kept by a young English gentleman named John North from 1575 to 1579. On his journey home from Italy in 1575–77, North changed the language of his diary from English to Italian. On his return to London, he continued to keep a record of his everyday life in Italian. This article uses North’s diary as a starting point from which to reconstruct the social and sensory worlds of a returned traveler and Italianate gentleman. In doing so, it offers a way of bridging the gap between individual experiences and personal networks on the one hand, and the wider processes of cultural encounter and linguistic contact on the other.
Nephrops norvegicus is a commercially valuable demersal fisheries species. Relatively little is understood about this species’ population dynamics across its distribution with previous mitochondrial and microsatellite studies failing to identify significant population-level differentiation. In this study, sequence variation in the mitochondrial (mtDNA) D-loop was analysed from samples across the distribution range, and compared with COI sequences for this species retrieved from GenBank. Analysis of a 375 bp fragment of the D-loop revealed significant genetic differentiation between samples from the North-east Atlantic and the east Mediterranean (FST = 0.107, P < 0.001). Tau (τ), theta (θ0 and θ1) and Fu's FS values suggest the species spread between 10,500 to 19,000 ybp and subsequently expanded rapidly across the Atlantic.
We present a method for automatic inference of conditions on the initial states of a program that guarantee that the safety assertions in the program are not violated. Constrained Horn clauses (CHCs) are used to model the program and assertions in a uniform way, and we use standard abstract interpretations to derive an over-approximation of the set of unsafe initial states. The precondition then is the constraint corresponding to the complement of that set, under-approximating the set of safe initial states. This idea of complementation is not new, but previous attempts to exploit it have suffered from the loss of precision. Here we develop an iterative specialisation algorithm to give more precise, and in some cases optimal safety conditions. The algorithm combines existing transformations, namely constraint specialisation, partial evaluation and a trace elimination transformation. The last two of these transformations perform polyvariant specialisation, leading to disjunctive constraints which improve precision. The algorithm is implemented and tested on a benchmark suite of programs from the literature in precondition inference and software verification competitions.
In this paper, we show how the notion of tree dimension can be used in the verification of constrained Horn clauses (CHCs). The dimension of a tree is a numerical measure of its branching complexity and the concept here applies to Horn clause derivation trees. Derivation trees of dimension zero correspond to derivations using linear CHCs, while trees of higher dimension arise from derivations using non-linear CHCs. We show how to instrument CHCs predicates with an extra argument for the dimension, allowing a CHC verifier to reason about bounds on the dimension of derivations. Given a set of CHCs P, we define a transformation of P yielding a dimension-bounded set of CHCs P≤k. The set of derivations for P≤k consists of the derivations for P that have dimension at most k. We also show how to construct a set of clauses denoted P>k whose derivations have dimension exceeding k. We then present algorithms using these constructions to decompose a CHC verification problem. One variation of this decomposition considers derivations of successively increasing dimension. The paper includes descriptions of implementations and experimental results.
We derive a dynamical mass of 1.2 ± 0.1 × 106 M⊙ for the young SSC M82-F and determine that the current (LV/M)⊙ is a factor of ∼ 5 higher than that predicted by a standard Kroupa (2001) IMF. This suggests that M82-F has a deficit of low mass stars and will not survive to become an old globular cluster.
Aberrant microbiota composition and function have been linked to several pathologies, including type 2 diabetes. In animal models, prebiotics induce favourable changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability (IP) and endotoxaemia, which are linked to concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance. This is the first study to investigate the link between IP, glucose tolerance and intestinal bacteria in human type 2 diabetes. In all, twenty-nine men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes were randomised to a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharide mixture) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplement (5·5 g/d for 12 weeks). Intestinal microbial community structure, IP, endotoxaemia, inflammatory markers and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and post intervention. IP was estimated by the urinary recovery of oral 51Cr-EDTA and glucose tolerance by insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. Intestinal microbial community analysis was performed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and quantitative PCR. Prebiotic fibre supplementation had no significant effects on clinical outcomes or bacterial abundances compared with placebo; however, changes in the bacterial family Veillonellaceae correlated inversely with changes in glucose response and IL-6 levels (r −0·90, P=0·042 for both) following prebiotic intake. The absence of significant changes to the microbial community structure at a prebiotic dosage/length of supplementation shown to be effective in healthy individuals is an important finding. We propose that concurrent metformin treatment and the high heterogeneity of human type 2 diabetes may have played a significant role. The current study does not provide evidence for the role of prebiotics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
We present here preliminary results of our program to obtain rough abundance estimates for > 104 red giant branch and red clump stars in four fields of the LMC. The derived abundance distributions will be a strong constraint on models of the LMC's star-formation history based on field star color-magnitude diagrams.
We investigate the kinematics of the luminous starburst galaxy NGC 7673 = Mrk 325, a nearby example of a ‘clumpy irregular galaxy’. Images with the WIYN 3.5m telescope reveal outer wisps associated with mergers, and we suggest NGC 7673 is the survivor of a minor merger. DensePak spectroscopy of the Hα kinematics shows that the H II regions are confined to a rotating disk. The Hα emission line velocity field indicates that although there is widespread star formation across the inner disk, it is still rotating smoothly. The Hα emission profiles over the brightest regions of the galaxy have two components: narrow, FWHM ≈ 50kms−1 lines, and broad, FWHMW ≈ 150 km s−1 lines. The width of the narrow lines is likely due to a combination of averaging effects, stellar winds and SNRs, and possibly gravitational motions within the disk. The origin of the broad component, which eclipses the narrow component in flux over much of the galaxy's inner regions, is still unclear. We may be looking at turbulent gas encased in bubbles carved out by massive stars and their descendants, or possibly some localized outflows from the disk.
Previous studies of facial emotion processing in bipolar disorder (BD) have reported conflicting findings. In independently conducted studies, we investigate facial emotion labeling in euthymic and depressed BD patients using tasks with static and dynamically morphed images of different emotions displayed at different intensities. Study 1 included 38 euthymic BD patients and 28 controls. Participants completed two tasks: labeling of static images of basic facial emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, sad) shown at different expression intensities; the Eyes Test (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), which involves recognition of complex emotions using only the eye region of the face. Study 2 included 53 depressed BD patients and 47 controls. Participants completed two tasks: labeling of “dynamic” facial expressions of the same five basic emotions; the Emotional Hexagon test (Young, Perret, Calder, Sprengelmeyer, & Ekman, 2002). There were no significant group differences on any measures of emotion perception/labeling, compared to controls. A significant group by intensity interaction was observed in both emotion labeling tasks (euthymia and depression), although this effect did not survive the addition of measures of executive function/psychomotor speed as covariates. Only 2.6–15.8% of euthymic patients and 7.8–13.7% of depressed patients scored below the 10th percentile of the controls for total emotion recognition accuracy. There was no evidence of specific deficits in facial emotion labeling in euthymic or depressed BD patients. Methodological variations—including mood state, sample size, and the cognitive demands of the tasks—may contribute significantly to the variability in findings between studies. (JINS, 2015, 21, 709–721)
IAU Commission 28 (IAU C28: Galaxies) was founded in the late 1930s at which time it had only a small membership (see the historical notes by Sadler et al. 2007). When C28 ended its existence in 2015 there were well over 1000 members on its books. The membership had grown to the point where the effort to keep track of active participants had become a major task. During the C28s tenure 27 IAU Symposia have been devoted to galaxies, the third highest number (Mickaelian 2014)
There has been an increasing interest in the relationship between severity of disease and costs in the care of people with dementia. Much of the current evidence is based on cross-sectional data, suggesting the need to examine trends over time for this important and growing cohort of the population.
This paper estimates resource use and costs of care based on longitudinal data for 72 people with dementia in Ireland. Data were collected from the Enhancing Care in Alzheimer's Disease (ECAD) study at two time points: baseline and follow-up, two years later. Patients’ dependence on others was measured using the Dependence Scale (DS), while patient function was measured using the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to explore the effects of a range of variables on formal and informal care costs.
Total costs of formal and informal care over six months rose from €9,266 (Standard Deviation (SD): 12,947) per patient at baseline to €21,266 (SD: 26,883) at follow-up, two years later. This constituted a statistically significant (p = 0.0014) increase in costs over time, driven primarily by an increase in estimated informal care costs. In the multivariate analysis, a one-point increase in the DS score, that is a one-unit increase in patient's dependence on others, was associated with a 19% increase in total costs (p = 0.0610).
Higher levels of dependence in people with Alzheimer's disease are significantly associated with increased costs of informal care as the disease progresses. Formal care services did not respond to increased dependence in people with dementia, leaving it to families to fill the caring gap, mainly through increased supervision with the progress of disease.
This paper presents synthesis and optical properties of mono-crystalline Ge1-ySny and Ge1-x-ySixSny semiconductor alloys grown on Si/Ge platforms via purposely designed CVD routes using highly reactive Si/Ge/Sn hydrides including Ge3H8, Ge4H10, Si4H10 and SnD4. The Ge1-ySny materials are shown to exhibit strong and tunable photoluminescence induced by the substitution of sizable Sn concentrations in the Ge diamond lattice ultimately leading to an indirect-to-direct band gap crossover at y= 0.08-0.09. The optical data indicate that the IR coverage of the alloy extends well beyond that of elemental Ge into the broader long wavelength range suggesting a variety of applications in Si-based photonics. Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys represent the first viable ternary semiconductor among group IV elements with independently tunable lattice parameter and electronic structure. Studies of the compositional dependence of direct and indirect edges in these alloys using photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements are reviewed. The optical results show band gap variation over a wide range above and below that of Ge from 1.1 to 0.5 eV and provide the first demonstration of direct gap behavior in this semiconductor system.