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This article considers the current position of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) research by producing an integrative synthetic overview of all the articles published in three leading international CALL journals: ReCALL (in its 31st year of publication), the CALICO Journal (its 36th) and Computer Assisted Language Learning journal (its 32nd) over a sustained recent period: 2006–2016. They are judged sufficiently representative to enable broad trends to be detected and the sector’s strengths and weaknesses to be identified. The focus is on CALL research’s international reach, the range of topics researched and the nature of the studies themselves. The findings suggest that CALL research is growing internationally in the number of countries and researchers involved. A wide range of topics is researched, but there is a concentration of papers published on a cluster of popular areas. Consequently, fewer articles are published on a large number of CALL topics or, in some cases, rarely studied. The research methods employed are rigorous: in writing, structure, theory, literature awareness, and discussion and presentation of results, yet there are still weaknesses. Most empirical studies are small scale: based on one institution, a small cohort of students, over a short period of time and seldom followed up. Based on these findings, suggestions are made with a view to broadening and strengthening CALL research through targeting neglected strategic areas with special journal issues and conferences, and improving the quality of research projects. Key areas for future research are proposed.
Biomarkers diagnose, predict or assess the risk of disease, and studies of the effects of genetic variation on biomarker phenotypes in the general population complement studies on patients diagnosed with disease. This paper traces the evolution of studies on biomarker genetics over the past 40 years through examples drawn from the work of Professor Martin and his colleagues.
The author provides a personal perspective on Nick Martin’s contributions to behavioral genetics and his role in the workshops on statistical genetics held annually in Boulder. Highlighted are Prof. Martin’s seminal work on multivariate behavioral genetics, his career-long commitment to the value of the study of twins, and his enthusiastic support of the didactic mission of the ‘Boulder workshops’. These contributions and activities continue unabated as we celebrate Prof. Martin’s 70th birthday.
Since China's reform and opening up started in 1978 and Vietnam's Doi Moi reforms were initiated in 1986, these two East Asian economies have adopted capitalistic models of development while retaining and reforming their socialist legal systems along the way. Tracking the trajectory of socialist laws and their legacy, this book offers a unique comparison of laws and institutional designs in China and Vietnam. Leading scholars from China, Vietnam, Australia and the United States analyze the history, development and impact of socialist law reforms in these two continuing socialist states. Readers are offered a varied insight into the complex quality and unique features of socialist law and why it should be taken seriously. This is a fresh theoretical approach to, and internal critique of, socialist laws which demonstrates how socialist law in China and Vietnam may shape the future of global legal development among developing countries.
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) considers the question of whether evaluated technologies are cost-effective in real world settings. As observed in HTA conducted by the Australian Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC), questions regarding the validity of data inputs to economic analyses that reflect real-world practice is a common reason for uncertainty on the cost effectiveness of new technologies. In addition to resource use and costs, there may be other uncertainties regarding the eligible patient population, patient management pathways and comparator selection. Our objective in this study was to present case studies from Australia where real world linked datasets could be better utilized to inform HTA conducted by the MSAC.
For selected therapy areas, assessment reports and public summary documents of HTA conducted by the MSAC published between January 2015 and November 2017 were reviewed. Our analysis identified HTAs where uncertainties around the inputs for health economic evaluations, as well as uncertainties in defining eligible patient numbers or current patient pathways of care were shown to exist. We then explored whether these uncertainties could have been addressed through real world linked datasets.
Our preliminary investigations identified two assessments: MSAC assessment of capsule endoscopy and transcatheter aortic valve implantation - where availability of real world linked data could have addressed uncertainties around the inputs required for the health economic evaluations.
Australia has a range of real world datasets with the potential to be used to inform HTA conducted by the MSAC. This can only be achieved if the datasets could be better linked and accessible for use by key stakeholders in the MSAC HTA process (e.g. industry, clinician, patient societies). Use of these data sets in HTA will enable timelier patient access to cost-effective technologies and more effective implementation and review of technologies after adoption into clinical practice.