Current dam discharge patterns in Noxon Rapids Reservoir reduce concentration and exposure times (CET) of herbicides used for aquatic plant management. Herbicide applications during periods of low dam discharge may increase herbicide CETs and improve efficacy. Applications of rhodamine WT dye were monitored under peak (736 to 765 m3 s−1) and minimum (1.4 to 2.8 m3 s−1) dam discharge patterns to quantify water-exchange processes. Whole-plot dye half-life under minimal discharge was 33 h, a 15-fold increase compared with the dye treatment during peak discharge. Triclopyr concentrations measured during minimum discharge within the treated plot ranged from 214 ± 25 to 1,243 ± 36 µg L−1 from 0 to 48 h after treatment (HAT), respectively. Endothall concentrations measured during minimum discharge in the same plot ranged from 164 ± 78 to 2,195 ± 1,043 µg L−1 from 0 to 48 HAT, respectively. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) occurrence in the treatment plot was 66%, 8%, and 14% during pretreatment, 5 wk after treatment (WAT), and 52 WAT, respectively. Myriophyllum spicatum occurrence in the nontreated plot was 68%, 71%, and 83% during pretreatment, 5 WAT, and 52 WAT, respectively. Curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) occurrence in the treatment plot was 29%, 0%, and 97% during pretreatment, 5 WAT, and 52 WAT, respectively. Potamogeton crispus increased from 24% to 83% at 0 WAT to 52 WAT, respectively, in the nontreated plot. Native species richness declined from 3.3 species per point to 2.1 in the treatment plot in the year of treatment but returned to pretreatment numbers by 52 WAT. Native species richness did not change during the study in the nontreated reference plot. Herbicide applications during periods of low flow can increase CETs and improve control, whereas applications during times of high-water flow would shorten CETs and could result in reduced treatment efficacy.