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Research on the capacity to understand others’ minds has tended to focus on representations of beliefs, which are widely taken to be among the most central and basic theory of mind representations. Representations of knowledge, by contrast, have received comparatively little attention and have often been understood as depending on prior representations of belief. After all, how could one represent someone as knowing something if one doesn't even represent them as believing it? Drawing on a wide range of methods across cognitive science, we ask whether belief or knowledge is the more basic kind of representation. The evidence indicates that non-human primates attribute knowledge but not belief, that knowledge representations arise earlier in human development than belief representations, that the capacity to represent knowledge may remain intact in patient populations even when belief representation is disrupted, that knowledge (but not belief) attributions are likely automatic, and that explicit knowledge attributions are made more quickly than equivalent belief attributions. Critically, the theory of mind representations uncovered by these various methods exhibit a set of signature features clearly indicative of knowledge: they are not modality-specific, they are factive, they are not just true belief, and they allow for representations of egocentric ignorance. We argue that these signature features elucidate the primary function of knowledge representation: facilitating learning from others about the external world. This suggests a new way of understanding theory of mind—one that is focused on understanding others’ minds in relation to the actual world, rather than independent from it.
The present study examined empathy deficits in toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms and psychopathy measured by the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) in adulthood (age 23 years) in 956 individuals from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. Consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behavior is associated with “active” rather than “passive” empathy deficits, early disregard for others, not lack of concern for others, predicted later ASPD symptoms. Early disregard for others was also significantly associated with factor 1 of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, which includes items assessing interpersonal and affective deficits, but not with factor 2, which includes items assessing impulsivity and poor behavioral control. The association between early disregard for others and psychopathy factor 2 was near zero after controlling for the shared variance between psychopathy factors 1 and 2. These results suggest that there is a propensity toward adulthood ASPD symptoms and psychopathy factor 1 that can be assessed early in development, which may help identify individuals most at risk for stable antisocial outcomes.
In patients with β-lactam allergies, administration of non–β-lactam surgical prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of infection. Although many patients self-report β-lactam allergies, most are unconfirmed or mislabeled. A quality improvement process, utilizing a structured β-lactam allergy tool, was implemented to improve the utilization of preferred β-lactam surgical prophylaxis.
Comprising Holostei and Teleostei, the ~32,000 species of neopterygian fishes are anatomically disparate and represent the dominant group of aquatic vertebrates today. However, the pattern by which teleosts rose to represent almost all of this diversity, while their holostean sister-group dwindled to eight extant species and two broad morphologies, is poorly constrained. A geometric morphometric approach was taken to generate a morphospace from more than 400 fossil taxa, representing almost all articulated neopterygian taxa known from the first 150 million years—roughly 60%—of their history (Triassic‒Early Cretaceous). Patterns of morphospace occupancy and disparity are examined to: (1) assess evidence for a phenotypically “dominant” holostean phase; (2) evaluate whether expansions in teleost phenotypic variety are predominantly abrupt or gradual, including assessment of whether early apomorphy-defined teleosts are as morphologically conservative as typically assumed; and (3) compare diversification in crown and stem teleosts. The systematic affinities of dapediiforms and pycnodontiforms, two extinct neopterygian clades of uncertain phylogenetic placement, significantly impact patterns of morphological diversification. For instance, alternative placements dictate whether or not holosteans possessed statistically higher disparity than teleosts in the Late Triassic and Jurassic. Despite this ambiguity, all scenarios agree that holosteans do not exhibit a decline in disparity during the Early Triassic‒Early Cretaceous interval, but instead maintain their Toarcian‒Callovian variety until the end of the Early Cretaceous without substantial further expansions. After a conservative Induan‒Carnian phase, teleosts colonize (and persistently occupy) novel regions of morphospace in a predominantly gradual manner until the Hauterivian, after which expansions are rare. Furthermore, apomorphy-defined teleosts possess greater phenotypic variety than typically assumed. Comparison of crown and stem teleost partial disparity indicates that, despite a statistically significant increase in crown teleost disparity between the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous, stem teleosts remained important long-term contributors to overall teleost disparity during this time.
Late medieval and early modern art often depicts aristocratic women with arched plucked eyebrows, and foreheads with strikingly high manipulated hairlines. And when nudes appear, they frequently have no pubic or underarm hair. The artists’ evident concern to show these forms of hair removal reveals the influence of a powerful discourse at work about male-directed and -controlled canons of beauty. Variations in what is considered “fashionable” in clothing and appearance have, of course, existed at least since the late fourteenth century. But in this case, the evidence suggests that by the end of the Middle Ages, misogynistic scientific writing had made female body hair a psychic and physical danger to men, and for the woman, even a locus of anxiety about marriage prospects and fertility. With motivations thus ranging from simple vanity to fear of marital rejection, medieval women engaged in a variety of practices revealed by a surprisingly well-documented body of materials, methods, and practitioners to help them achieve their goals.
Cosmetic manuals, beginning with the ensemble of Latin texts known as Trotula in the late twelfth century and remaining popular through the sixteenth, offered instructions for reducing or removing hair on the face and even the genitalia (armpit hair seemed silently included in these recipes). These precepts seem to lie behind the medieval ideal of female hairlessness—a beauty and hygiene canon that apparently had widespread acceptance and internalization by both aristocratic women and those who wished, cosmetically at least, to appear like them. Such treatments of depilation offer not only a fascinating glimpse into cosmetic practices but also alert us to the existence of a class of professional depilators who traveled to homes, bathhouses, and courts to practice their craft.
Though medieval writing about female cosmetics has been examined by Monica Green, Claudio da Soller, and Montserrat Cabré, among others, and the female body has been recently treated in such works of art history as Sherry C. M. Lindquist's collection The Meanings of Nudity in Medieval Art, the topic of female depilation has not had close attention from cosmetic and fashion historians. This is surprising, since instructions for depilation, next to whitening the skin, are the most frequent recipes in the cosmetic manuals, which were almost all written by men though addressed to women, sometimes of high or royal social status.
This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) might be common features of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems across development. We examined relations between three EF latent variables (a common EF factor and factors specific to updating working memory and shifting sets), constructed from nine laboratory tasks administered at age 17, to latent growth intercept (capturing stability) and slope (capturing change) factors of teacher- and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors in 885 individual twins aged 7 to 16 years. We then estimated the proportion of intercept–intercept and slope–slope correlations predicted by EF as well as the association between EFs and a common psychopathology factor (P factor) estimated from all 9 years of internalizing and externalizing measures. Common EF was negatively associated with the intercepts of teacher-rated internalizing and externalizing behavior in males, and explained 32% of their covariance; in the P factor model, common EF was associated with the P factor in males. Shifting-specific was positively associated with the externalizing slope across sex. EFs did not explain covariation between parent-rated behaviors. These results suggest that EFs are associated with stable problem behavior variation, explain small proportions of covariance, and are a risk factor that that may depend on gender.
The San Francisco Fire Department’s (SFFD; San Francisco, California USA) Homeless Outreach and Medical Emergency (HOME) Team is the United States’ first Emergency Medical Services (EMS)-based outreach effort using a specially trained paramedic to redirect frequent users of EMS to other types of services. The effectiveness of this program at reducing repeat use of emergency services during the first seven months of the team’s existence was examined.
A retrospective analysis of EMS use frequency and demographic characteristics of frequent users was conducted. Clients that used emergency services at least four times per month from March 2004 through May 2005 were contacted for intervention. Patterns for each frequent user before and after intervention were analyzed. Changes in EMS use during the 15-month study interval was the primary outcome measurement.
A total of 59 clients were included. The target population had a median age of 55.1 years and was 68% male. Additionally, 38.0% of the target population was homeless, 43.4% had no primary care, 88.9% had a substance abuse disorder at time of contact, and 83.0% had a history of psychiatric disorder. The HOME Team undertook 320 distinct contacts with 65 frequent users during the study period. The average EMS use prior to HOME Team contact was 18.72 responses per month (SD=19.40), and after the first contact with the HOME Team, use dropped to 8.61 (SD=10.84), P<.001.
Frequent users of EMS suffer from disproportionate comorbidities, particularly substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This population responds well to the intervention of a specially trained paramedic as measured by EMS usage.
TangherliniN, VillarJ, BrownJ, RodriguezRM, YehC, FriedmanBT, WadaP. The HOME Team: Evaluating the Effect of an EMS-based Outreach Team to Decrease the Frequency of 911 Use Among High Utilizers of EMS. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):603–607.
The management of patients with a glioma is challenging and best achieved by a team approach encompassing a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgical excision in a specialist Cancer Center - the balance of treatment depending on the site and grade of tumor. Survival rates are improving and care of patients with or recovering from gliomas is increasingly handled in the community under the care of local physicians. This book provides an authoritative, multi-disciplinary summary of glioma biology, genetics, management and social issues, based on the world-leading program at the Duke University Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, one of the world's largest and most successful Centers to offer brain cancer treatment and translational research. The text is written by specialists from this Center, giving it a consistent approach and style. This is an important educational resource for neurologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, psychiatrists, neurohospitalists and ancillary members of neuro-oncology teams.
The star has to go on radiating and radiating and contracting and contracting until, I suppose, it gets down to a few km. radius, when gravity becomes strong enough to hold in the radiation, and the star can at last find peace. Dr. Chandrasekhar had got this result before, but he has rubbed it in in his latest paper; and, when discussing it with him, I felt driven to the conclusion that this was almost a reductio ad absurdum of the relativistic degeneracy formula.
(A. S. Eddington )
The emphasis of this chapter is on four parts of relativistic astrophysics in which general relativity plays a fundamental role. After briefly reviewing the early history of the subject, we discuss
The structure and stability of relativistic stars
Observational evidence for black holes
General relativistic astrophysics encompasses a broader arena, and separate chapters or parts of chapters in this volume are devoted to cosmology, gravitational waves, the inspiral and merger of compact binaries, and black-hole stability.
Relativistic astrophysics began in 1916 on the Russian front, where Karl Schwarzschild wrote two papers, one reporting the solution to the Einstein equation for an incompressible spherical star, the other presenting the celebrated vacuum Schwarzschild spacetime. Schwarzschild was dead within the year, and for the next 47 years his solutions had a twilight existence. In no known stars did general relativity play a significant role, and only a handful of papers in astronomy or astrophysics mentioned the work.
Although sparsely distributed, the exceptions to this neglect were remarkable. In 1931, shortly before Chadwick's discovery of the neutron and shortly after the first paper by Chandrasekhar  (following approximate computations by Anderson  and Stoner  on an upper mass limit of white dwarfs, Landau  submitted a paper that independently argued that there was an upper limit on the mass of a collection of degenerate fermions and speculated on the existence of stars with cores of nuclear density.