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Dryland and irrigated field experiments were established to measure differences in soil water relations throughout the growing season between plots in which cotton was grown with and without silverleaf nightshade interference. Soil moisture readings were taken weekly at 15-cm increments to a maximum depth of 120 and 150 cm during 1984 and 1985, respectively. When cotton was grown with silverleaf nightshade, soil water loss was greater at the lower portion of the soil profile earlier in the growing season than when cotton was grown alone. In the irrigated environment in 1985 when precipitation was higher than normal and the soil moisture content remained above normal, soil water loss did not differ. Cotton lint yield, plant height, and boll size reflected the amount of soil moisture available for growth and development of the crop. A statistical technique for quantifying soil water relations between the crop growing alone and growing with interference from the weed is demonstrated.
Soil-water profiles of cotton, several weeds, and bare soil were compared in research conducted in 1989 and 1990 near Perkins, OK. Neutron probe access tubes were installed prior to plant establishment to facilitate nondestructive volumetric water content determinations at selected depths throughout the season. Planting was in a double-circle pattern concentric around each neutron probe access tube. Phenological and soil-water data were collected weekly. As plants began to senesce, aboveground biomass yield data were collected. In 1989, rainfall frequently replenished soil-water in the upper soil profile. The plants used the recharge water to varying degrees, particularly late in the season. Common cocklebur and johnsongrass extracted soil-water from greater depths than cotton and velvetleaf throughout the season. In 1990, the largest differences detected between bare soil and weeds early in the season were measured for common cocklebur, devil's-claw, and silverleaf nightshade. Later in the season, however, there was little difference in soil-water content in the upper soil profiles for all species. Johnsongrass emerged later than the other species in 1990 which affected its relative soil-water extraction.
Soil water from plots containing cotton, devil's-claw, cotton with devil's-claw, and bare soil was measured throughout the growing season using a neutron probe and related to weed interference with the crop. Volumetric water content throughout the soil profile to a depth of 180 cm did not differ among treatments before the 5th or 6th week after cotton emergence. Greater water depletion occurred early in the season in plots containing devil's-claw which corresponded to a period of rapid weed growth. In plots containing only cotton, the largest reduction in water content occurred later in the season during peak bloom and early boll formation. Soil water content at depths greater than 105 cm remained unchanged in all plots throughout the season. Interference from devil's-claw reduced cotton lint yield 96% in 1986 and 46% in 1987. Higher rainfall and reduced weed populations in 1987 reduced the impact of weed interference on cotton lint yield.
The effects of hogpotato interference on cotton and of the crop on the weed were measured under field conditions in four environments. Full-season interference from 105 ± 21 hogpotato plants/m2 reduced cotton plant height by 14 to 44%. Conversely, weed dry weight was reduced 54% through full-season interference from cotton. Lint yield reductions in cotton ranged from 31 to 98% following full-season weed interference. Interference during the first 7 weeks of crop growth reduced lint yield by approximately 40%; however, interference after 7 weeks of weed-free maintenance did not affect lint yield. Interference reduced boll size in 3 of 4 yr, lint percent in 2 of 4, and boll number in the only year it was measured. Cotton fiber length, uniformity index, and micronaire were reduced by full-season interference in 1 of 2 yr; however, fiber strength was not affected in either year. Significant use of soil water by hogpotato occurred at 120 cm and deeper in the soil while cotton used water primarily in the upper 75 cm.
Several herbicides were evaluated as seed-applied treatments to determine the feasibility of controlling cheat by applying herbicide directly onto the cheat seeds during the wheat harvesting process and returning the treated seeds to the field. Seed-applied trifluralin reduced cheat emergence 80% in exploratory evaluations. In herbicide-seed mixing time and spray volume experiments, short mixing times were adequate, and spray volumes from 113 to 227 ml/kg seeds did not affect results. Herbicides applied with a sprayer-equipped auger reduced cheat emergence >90% and were as effective as herbicides applied with a rotary drum seed-treater. Increasing spray volume increased the efficacy of auger-applied treatments. Adjuvants did not improve the efficacy of seed-applied trifluralin.
The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox.
A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring costs related to the smallpox emergency, procurement, and administrative aspects that are not handled by other functional divisions of incident command systems.
The plan was developed and is under frequent review by the LAC-DHS Smallpox Planning Working Group, and is reviewed periodically by the LAC Bioterrorism Advisory Committee, and draws upon the Smallpox Response Plan and Guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). The Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan, with its SEMS framework and ICS structure, now is serving as a model for the development of LAC-DHS plans for responses to other terrorist or natural-outbreak responses.
About 1540 John Leland wrote of the ruins of Old Sarum: ‘Ther was a paroch of the Holy Rode beside in Old-Saresbyri; and an other over the est gate whereof yet some tokens remayne. I do not perceyve that ther wer any mo gates in Old-Saresbyri than 2: one by est, and an other by west. Withoute eche of these gates was a fair suburbe. And in the est suburbe was a paroch chirch of S. John: and ther yet is a chapelle standinge. … Ther hath bene houses in tyme of mind inhabited in the est suburbe of Old-Saresbyri: but now ther is not one house neither within Old-Saresbyri, nor without it, inhabited.’ Since that date much work has been expended on Old Sarum itself, but it may be said with truth that the suburbs have received but scant, if any, attention.
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