Invertebrate seed predators (ISPs) are an important component of agroecosystems that help regulate weed populations. Previous research has shown that ISPs' seed preference depends on the plant and ISP species. Although numerous studies have quantified weed seed losses from ISPs, limited research has been conducted on the potential for ISPs to consume cover crop seeds. Cover crops are sometimes broadcast seeded, and because seeds are left on the soil surface, they are susceptible to ISPs. We hypothesized that (1) ISPs will consume cover crop seeds to the same extent as weed seeds, (2) seed preference will vary by plant and ISP species, and (3) seed consumption will be influenced by seed morphology and nutritional characteristics. We conducted seed preference trials with four common ISPs [Pennsylvania dingy ground beetle (Harpalus pensylvanicus), common black ground beetle (Pterostichus melanarius), Allard's ground cricket (Allonemobius allardi) and fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus)] in laboratory no choice and choice feeding assays. We compared seed predation of ten commonly used cover crop species [barley (Hordeum vulgare), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), forage radish (Raphanus sativus), cereal rye (Secale cereale), white mustard (Sinapis alba), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), red clover (Trifolium pratense), triticale (×Triticosecale) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)] and three weed species [velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi)]. All four ISPs readily consumed cover crop seeds (P < 0.05), but cover crops with hard seed coats and seed hulls such as hairy vetch and barley were less preferred. Our results suggest that farmers should select cover crop species that are avoided by ISPs if they plan on broadcasting the seed, such as with aerial interseeding.