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How should a civil court use a relevant conviction? Some have argued that a civil claim contesting the factual basis of a conviction should be struck out as an abuse of process unless new evidence is presented which “entirely changes the aspect of the case”. Such a high evidential requirement is wrong in principle, inconsistent with section 11 of the Civil Evidence Act 1968, and unjust in practice. The law should recognise that there are two distinct types of cases. The first is concerned with truly abusive claims, where the later civil suit is brought for an improper purpose or otherwise similarly abusive; there a high level of new evidence should be required. The second deals with challenges to convictions which are in principle permissible; there, if on the facts they have no real prospect of success, an application for summary judgment by the other party is the solution.
The business meeting of Division VI was held on Monday 10 October 2009. Apologies had been received in advance from D Breitschwerdt, P Caselli, G Ferland, M Juvela, S Lizano, M Rozyczka, V Tóth, M Tsuboi, J Yang and B-C Koo.
Division VI gathers astronomers studying the diffuse matter in space between stars, ranging from primordial intergalactic clouds, via dust and neutral and ionized gas in galaxies, to the densest molecular clouds and the processes by which stars are formed.
Commission 34 covers diffuse matter in space on scales ranging from the circumstellar to the galactic and intergalactic. As such it has enormous scope and because of this, it alone forms Division VI. Key aspects include star formation, matter around evolved stars, astrochemistry, nebulae, galactic and intergalactic clouds and the multitude of effects of the interaction of stars with their surroundings. Associated with these areas are a huge range of physical and chemical processes including hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics, radiative processes, molecular physics and chemistry, plasma processes and others too numerous to name. These are complemented by an equally huge range of observational studies using practically all space and ground-based instrumentation at nearly all observable wavelengths. A glance at any data-base of publications over the past few years attests to the vigorous state of these studies. The current membership of the Division is around 800. It also has three separate working groups.
Little is known about the psychological health or treatment experiences of those who have left the British armed forces.
To describe the frequency and associations of common mental disorders and help-seeking behaviours in a representative sample of UK veterans at high risk of mental health problems.
A cross-sectional telephone survey of 496 ‘vulnerable’ ex-service personnel selected from an existing epidemiological military cohort.
The response rate was 64%; 44% of these had a psychiatric diagnosis, most commonly depression. Those with a diagnosis were more likely to be of lower rank and divorced or separated. Just over half of those with self-reported mental health problems were currently seeking help, most from their general practitioners. Most help-seekers received treatment, usually medication; 28% were in touch with a service charity and 4% were receiving cognitive-behavioural therapy.
Depression is more common than post-traumatic stress disorder in UK ex-service personnel. Only about half of those who have a diagnosis are seeking help currently, and few see specialists.
A systematic study has been made of the growth of both hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon nitride (a-SiN) by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (ECR-PECVD). In the case of a-SiN, helium and nitrogen gas is injected into the system such that it passes through the resonance zone. These highly ionised gases provide sufficient energy to ionise the silane gas, which is injected further downstream. It is demonstrated that a gas phase reaction occurs between the silane and nitrogen species. It is control of the ratio of silane to nitrogen in the plasma which is critical for the production of stoichiometric a-SiN. Material has been produced at 80 °C with a Si:N ratio of 1:1.3 a breakdown strength of ∼6 MV cm−1 and resistivity of >1014 Ωcm. In the case of a-Si:H, helium and hydrogen gas is injected into the ECR zone and silane is injected downstream. It is shown that control of the gas phase reactions is critical in this process also. a-Si:H has been deposited at 80 °C with a dark conductivity of 10−11 Ω−1 cm−1 and a photosensitivity of just below 4×104. Such materials are suitable for use in thin film transistors on plastic substrates.
Division VI of the International Astronomical Union deals with Interstellar Matter, and incorporates Commission 34. It gathers astronomers studying the diffuse matter in space between the stars, ranging from primordial intergalactic clouds via dust and neutral and ionised gas in galaxies to the densest molecular clouds and the processes by which stars are formed. There are approximately 730 members. The working groups in Planetary Nebulae and Cosmochemistry have served us well in organising periodic seminars in these subject areas. However, the Organising Committee has recognised that other developing areas of the ISM are not properly represented in the current organisation. In January 1997, the Division formed a new ISM working group on Star Forming Regions including cross-divisional representation to monitor progress in their fields and to help develop proposals for future IAU Symposia or Colloquia. In the future, especially in view of the rapid developments in spaceborne X-ray and IR astronomy, Division VI also hopes to form other working groups on the Hot ISM and the Extragalactic ISM.
Starbursts, black holes and AGN have strong observational links, as discussed elsewhere in these proceedings. Perry & Dyson (1985 (PD), see also Perry 1994) studied the role of shocks around supernovae and stellar wind bubbles in the nuclei of active galaxies. Both the ejecta and the ambient ISM are initially shocked to high temperatures. PD found that while the shocked gas is maintained at high pressure by ram pressure, it cools rapidly, to then produce the observed optical and UV emission lines. The mass supply rate from the nuclear starburst, inferred from the strength of the emission lines, tallies well with that required by an accreting black hole to generate the observed luminosity. A symbiosis between a starburst stellar cluster and an accreting black hole naturally generates the observational features associated with QSOs.
Lake sediment cores from Midge Lake, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands and Sombre Lake, Signy Island, South Orkney Islands were analysed for volcanic tephra using light microscopy and magnetic susceptibility. Cores were dated using published 14C and 210Pb chronologies. Electron probe microanalyses of discrete tephra glass shards were undertaken to characterise the tephra geochemically in order to identify possible source volcanoes and refine tephrochronological data for the region. Results identified five tephra horizons in a core from Midge Lake. Four of these tephra at 3–4 cm, 8–9 cm (c. 450 yr BP), 15–16 cm (c. 755 ± 105 yr BP) and 21–22 cm (c. 1340 ± 100 yr BP) consisted of sodic basaltic to basalticandesitic glasses, containing abundant labradoritic feldspar inclusions, and a single ‘acidic’ tephra was found at 2–3 cm. Seven tephra horizons were identified in the Sombre Lake core including three basaltic tephra at 3–9 cm (30 ± 4 yr BP to 125 ± 25 yr BP), 31–32 cm and 44–46 cm (1325 ± 50 14C yr BP) and four acidic tephra at 21–22 cm and 24–25 cm, 33–36 cm (c. 1021 14C yr BP) and 54–56 cm (c. 1450 14C yr BP). These are the first tephra to be identified from the South Orkney Islands. Geochemical and grain size analysis indicated that the analysed Midge Lake tephra were derived from the Quaternary Deception Island volcano. Smaller grain sizes, congruent geochemical data and prevailing wind directions also indicate this volcano as the likely source of Sombre Lake tephra. Results highlight the importance of establishing geochemical consistency between tephra deposited across wide geographical areas, during apparently synchronous time periods, if they are to be used in a regional tephrochronology.
We present an analytical model of SNR evolution in a cloudy interstellar medium for a single progenitor star of spectral type 05 V. The model begins with the progenitor on the zero-age main sequence, includes the effects of the star’s wind and ionizing photons, and ends with the SNR’s assimilation by the ISM. We assume that the ISM consists of atomic clouds, molecular clouds, and a hot intercloud phase. The type of SNR that results bears a strong resemblance to N63A in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
The Department of Urban Archaeology, City of London, was set up in December 1973 as part of Guildhall Museum, now the Museum of London. Since then it has excavated sixteen sites and carried out numerous watching briefs. Most of the formal excavations have been conducted on the vital waterfront sites, made available for the first time, and on the Roman and medieval defences of the City. Important evidence of the elusive Saxon occupation is gradually coming to light, and the work is accompanied by specialist research, particularly finds, environmental and documentary.
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