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Platonic love is a concept that has profoundly shaped Western literature, philosophy and intellectual history for centuries. First developed in the Symposium and the Phaedrus, it was taken up by subsequent thinkers in antiquity, entered the theological debates of the Middle Ages, and played a key role in the reception of Neoplatonism and the etiquette of romantic relationships during the Italian Renaissance. In this wide-ranging reference work, a leading team of international specialists examines the Platonic distinction between higher and lower forms of eros, the role of the higher form in the ascent of the soul and the concept of Beauty. They also treat the possibilities for friendship and interpersonal love in a Platonic framework, as well as the relationship between love, rhetoric and wisdom. Subsequent developments are explored in Plutarch, Plotinus, Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, Eriugena, Aquinas, Ficino, della Mirandola, Castiglione and the contra amorem tradition.
This chapter sets out to explore the thesis that Plato, at least in his later years, in his efforts to identify the nature of his First Principle, was inclined to settle on the concept of a rational World Soul, with demiurgic functions, and that this was a doctrine that his faithful amanuensis in his last years, Philip of Opus, advanced on his own account, in the belief that in this he was developing the latest theories of his Master.
Antidepressant medication and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are both recommended interventions in depression treatment guidelines based on literature reviews and meta-analyses. However, ‘conventional’ meta-analyses comparing their efficacy are limited by their reliance on reported study-level information and a narrow focus on depression outcome measures assessed at treatment completion. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis, considered the gold standard in evidence synthesis, can improve the quality of the analyses when compared with conventional meta-analysis.
We describe the protocol for a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of antidepressants and IPT for adult acute-phase depression across a range of outcome measures, including depressive symptom severity as well as functioning and well-being, at both post-treatment and follow-up (PROSPERO: CRD42020219891).
We will conduct a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library to identify randomised clinical trials comparing antidepressants and IPT in the acute-phase treatment of adults with depression. We will invite the authors of these studies to share the participant-level data of their trials. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be conducted using mixed-effects models to assess treatment effects at post-treatment and follow-up for all outcome measures that are assessed in at least two studies.
This will be the first IPD meta-analysis examining antidepressants versus IPT efficacy. This study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of depression treatment by comparing the short- and long-term effects of two widely used interventions across a range of outcome measures using state-of-the-art statistical techniques.
The notion of Platonic Forms as divine thoughts was critical to the theistic interpretation of Plato’s philosophy. This chapter considers the origins and development of the theory of divine ideas. The chapter begins by examining the evidence for this theory in the Old Academy, including Speusippus, Xenocrates and Aristotle. The notion is then traced among subsequent Platonists, including Antiochus of Ascalon, Eudorus of Alexandria, Alcinous, and the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria. The reception of the theory of divine ideas in Christianity concludes the chapter, with reference to Origen of Alexandria and Maximus the Confessor.
Background: Targeted antibiotic stewardship interventions are needed to reduce unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Organizational readiness for change is a precursor to successful change implementation. The Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) is a validated survey instrument that has been used to detect potential obstacles and tailor interventions. In an outpatient stewardship study, primary care practices with high readiness to change trended toward greater improvements in antibiotic prescribing. We used the ORCA to assess barriers to change before implementing a multicenter inpatient stewardship intervention for ASB. Methods: Surveys were self-administered by healthcare professionals in inpatient medicine and long-term care units at 4 geographically diverse Veterans’ Affairs facilities during January–December 2018. Participants included providers (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners), nurses, pharmacists, infection preventionists, and quality managers. The survey included 7 subscales: evidence (perceived evidence strength) and 6 context subscales (favorability of the organizational context to support change). Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 meaning very weak or strongly disagree. Scores were compared between professional types and sites. We also measured allocated employee effort for stewardship at each site. Results: Overall, 104 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 69.3%. For all sites combined, the evidence subscale had the highest score of the 7 subscales (mean, 4; SD, 0.9); the resources subscale was significantly lower than other subscales (mean, 2.8; SD, 0.9; P < .001). Scores for budget and staffing resources were lower than scores for training and facility resources (P < .001 for both comparisons). Pharmacists had lower scores than providers for the staff culture subscale (P = .04). Comparing subscales between sites, ORCA scores were significantly different for leadership behavior (communication and management), measurement (goal setting and accountability), and general resources (Fig. 1). The site with the lowest scores for resources (mean, 2.4) also had lower scores for leadership behavior and measurement, and lower pharmacist effort devoted to antibiotic stewardship. Conclusions: Although healthcare professionals endorsed the evidence about nontreatment of ASB, perceived barriers to antibiotic stewardship included inadequate resources and lack of leadership support. These findings provide targets for tailoring the intervention to maximize the success of our stewardship program. Our support to sites with lower leadership scores includes training of local champions who are dedicated to supporting the intervention. For sites with low scores for resources, our targeted implementation strategies include analyzing local needs and avoiding increased workload for existing personnel.
Falls are a growing concern in seniors (≥65 yrs). Cognitive impairment (CI) and vestibular impairment (VI) increase fall risk. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of CI and VI in seniors experiencing falls.
Participants (≥65 yrs) with falls were recruited from Falls Prevention Programs (FPPs) and a Memory Clinic (MC). CI was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment at FPPs. VI was assessed at an MC and FFPs using the Head Impulse- (video + bedside), Headshake-, Dix-Hallpike test, and test of sensory interaction in balance. Questionnaires included Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC).
Of 41 participants (29 FPPs, 12 MC); mean age was 80.1 ± 7.1 years, and 58.5% were female. Overall, 82.9% had VI. At FPPs, 76.0% had CI, and 72.3% had CI + VI. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) was more common than unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) (70.6% vs. 29.4%); p = 0.016. Dizziness Handicap (DHI) was not different between those with a VI (23.5 ± 23.9) versus without VI [PVI + no impairment] (10.0 ± 15.4); p = 0.160. Balance confidence (ABC) was lowest in VI but not significantly different between those with a VI (63.4 ± 27.3) versus without VI [PVI + no impairment] (85.0 ± 16.5); p = 0.053.
VI and CI are prevalent in seniors experiencing falls. For seniors with history of falls, both cognitive and vestibular functions should be considered in the assessment and subsequent treatment. Screening enables earlier detection, targeted interventions, and prevention, reducing the clinical and financial impact.
Vestibular impairment (VI) and cognitive impairment (CI) are risk factors for senior falls. We tested the feasibility of a self-directed 12-week vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program in Memory Clinic patients (65 years+) with a fall, CI and VI. We assessed recruitment, exercise adherence and ability to complete questionnaires/assessments. Twelve patients with CI and falls were screened and 8/12 (75% – prevalence) had VI. All patients completed the screening tests/questionnaires (100% – completeness); 7/8 patients were recruited (87.5% – recruitment); 1/7 (85.7% – attrition) patient attended follow-up. VI is prevalent in patients with CI experiencing falls but traditional VR is not feasible, so a novel delivery of VR must be explored.
In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.