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To determine if dietary, supplemental and total vitamin D intakes in the USA are influenced by income, race/ethnicity or gender.
Cross-sectional. US vitamin D intakes were estimated by poverty income ratio (PIR), race/ethnicity and gender using 24 h dietary intake recalls and dietary supplement use questionnaires. Statistical analyses of weighted data were performed using SAS (version 9·2) to estimate means and their standard errors. Race and ethnic intake differences controlling for PIR, gender and age were assessed by ANCOVA.
Adults aged ≥19 years.
The 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA.
Total (dietary and supplement) vitamin D intake was greater in the high (10·0 (se 0·30) μg/d) v. the medium (7·9 (se 0·3) μg/d) or the low (8·0 (se 0·3) μg/d) PIR categories. Total vitamin D intake of non-Hispanic Whites (10·6 (se 0·4) μg/d) was greater than that of Hispanics (8·1 (se 0·3) μg/d) and non-Hispanic Blacks (7·1 (se 0·3) μg/d). Supplemental vitamin D intake was greater by females (5·3 (se 0·2) μg/d) than by males (3·3 (se 0·2) μg/d). Participants with high income were more likely to be vitamin D supplement users (33·0 %) than those with medium (22·5 %) or low (17·6 %) income. High-income non-Hispanic Whites had the lowest percentage (57 %) not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin D. Fortified milk and milk products provided 43·7 % of the dietary vitamin D intake.
Public health efforts should expand the number of vitamin D-fortified foods and encourage the consumption of foods high in vitamin D and use of supplements.
To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures.
The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA.
Young adults (20–39 years of age).
Among these young adults (n 5316), 23·8 % were BS, 16·5 % were RTEC consumers and 59·7 % were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31 %, 39 %, 37 %, 28 %, 23 %, 40 % and 42 % less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1·24, 1·26 and 1·44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22 %, 31 % and 24 % less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed.
Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in US young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.
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