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We may reasonably suppose that Henry of Blois was deeply impressed by the building works in progress at Cluny during his childhood there as a monastic oblate. This period spanned the final years of Hugh of Semur's abbatiate and the opening years of that of the regrettable Abbot Pons (1109–22). Work on Abbot Hugh's great church of ‘Cluny III’, the longest church in western Christendom, had started in 1088 and it was dedicated only in 1130. For the whole of Henry's noviciate, the abbey church was a building site.
At his consecration as bishop of Winchester in 1129 Henry inherited a Romanesque cathedral that for a short time had also been the longest church north of the Alps, until it was overtaken by Cluny's new church. Begun under the direct patronage of Bishop Walkelin (1070–98) in 1079, it had already undergone some changes. The original design had been modified during construction, with a belated decision to add corner towers to the ends of the transepts. The builders soon realised that the foundations would not bear the weight and the scheme was abandoned, leaving its mark in certain anomalies of design. More seriously perhaps, the original crossing tower had collapsed in 1107, and had to be rebuilt from the foundations. It is possible that at the time of that disaster the nave was still under construction, delayed by the quarrel between Walkelin's successor, Bishop Giffard (1100–29), and the priory; and it has been argued that the recorded dedication of an altar in the 1120s (probably 1126) actually marked the final completion of works. If so, it was a remarkably recent building when Bishop Henry took office.
Whether Bishop Henry immediately made plans to alter his cathedral church is uncertain, but there are no obvious archaeological signs of this having happened. In any case, the bishop was able to satisfy his building aspirations at two other sites. The Hospital of St Cross was founded in around 1135 and although the surviving twelfth-century church was not yet under construction, the domestic buildings must have started to rise shortly after the foundation.
The enteroendocrine system is located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and makes up the largest endocrine system in the human body. Despite that, its roles and functions remain incompletely understood. Gut regulatory peptides are the main products of enteroendocrine cells, and play an integral role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients through their effect on intestinal secretions and gut motility. Several peptides, such as cholecystokinin, polypeptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1, have traditionally been reported to suppress appetite following food intake, so-called satiety hormones. In this review, we propose that, in the healthy individual, this system to regulate appetite does not play a dominant role in normal food intake regulation, and that there is insufficient evidence to wholly link postprandial endogenous gut peptides with appetite-related behaviours. Instead, or additionally, top-down, hedonic drive and neurocognitive factors may have more of an impact on food intake. In GI disease however, supraphysiological levels of these hormones may have more of an impact on appetite regulation as well as contributing to other unpleasant abdominal symptoms, potentially as part of an innate response to injury. Further work is required to better understand the mechanisms involved in appetite control and unlock the therapeutic potential offered by the enteroendocrine system in GI disease and obesity.
This essay outlines a quandary facing international investment dispute settlement (IIDS): the tension between the wish to curb “dual hatting” and the wish to increase the diversity of those appointed as arbitrators in IIDS cases. Thoughtful observers are concerned by the effect on IIDS, either in fact or as a matter of appearance, of lawyers who wear “dual hats”—one as arbitrator in IIDS cases, and a second as counsel representing clients in other IIDS matters. Concurrently, other thoughtful observers are concerned that appointments to IIDS predominantly go to a small cadre of established arbitrators caricatured as “pale, male and stale.” This concern has prompted efforts to increase the pool of female and minority arbitrators. However, these individuals would be drawn primarily from the ranks of younger practicing lawyers who must continue to practice unless and until they receive sufficient appointments to make full-time service as arbitrators economically feasible.
I want to raise a quandary facing international investment dispute settlement: the tension between the wish to curb “dual hatting” and the wish to increase the diversity of persons appointed as arbitrators.
John Crook's remarks highlighted key recurring problems faced by mass claims programs. His remarks drew on his personal experience, but also on the writings of experts who have designed and administered mass claims programs, notably Dr. Norbert Wühler, whose visa apparently fell victim to “extreme vetting” because of his work for the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on a mass claims program in Iraq.
This article establishes the significance of elections held in the annexed
departments of the Napoleonic Empire from 1802 to 1813. It thus represents an
original, and perhaps surprising, contribution to recent debate on the nature of
Napoleonic imperialism, in which attention has shifted from core to periphery, and
away from purely military matters. The electoral process under this authoritarian
regime has been alternately neglected or derided, especially where the newly created
departments of the Low Countries and parts of Germany and Italy are concerned.
However, extensive archival research demonstrates that it was taken extremely
seriously by both regime and voters, especially outside metropolitan France. These
‘First European Elections', as they may be dubbed, took place in regular fashion
right across the Empire and are studied here on a transnational basis, which also
involves the metropolitan departments. Though open to all adult males at the primary
level, they were not exercises in democracy, but they did create some rare political
space which local people were not slow to exploit for their own purposes. Above all,
they served as a means of integrating ‘new Frenchmen’, particularly members of
indigenous elites, into the Napoleonic system.