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North Leigh Roman villa ranks as one of the largest known courtyard villas of Roman Britain.1 Situated just above the floodplain of the river Evenlode, which loops around the site, the villa lies c. 2 miles north of North Leigh village and 10 miles west of Oxford (SP 397 154). The building developed within the Late Iron Age earthwork complex of the North Oxfordshire Grim's Ditch, a discontinuous bank and ditch which partly encloses a 22-square mile area of this landscape.2 The villa is under English Heritage guardianship (Scheduled Ancient Monument no. 334573) and a programme of geophysical survey was conducted at their request to assist in management of the site.3
Hoards of denarii are common in Britain and the number which have been recorded in detail means that it is now possible to suggest reasonably accurately what a ‘normal’ hoard of a particular date should look like. That being the case, we can then look for variation around that norm and both investigate and speculate what that variation means. A methodology is developed which suggests periods of faster and less rapid coin circulation which has implications for consideration of monetisation. The model also enables us to view where denarii entered circulation; unsurprisingly the army looms large in this picture. The methodology is directly transferable to other provinces and other periods where there are long-lived, relatively stable monetary systems.
Acute airway distress is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to limit morbidity and mortality. Airway distress arises from any process in the larynx, trachea, or bronchi that obstructs pulmonary ventilation. A wide variety of pathologic processes can result in airway distress. Management of patients experiencing acute airway distress depends greatly on the severity of distress as well as the specific etiology, but restoring adequate ventilation to the pulmonary system is the goal of all treatments. Oxygen administration, intubation, cricothyrotomy, and tracheotomy are all treatment options for patients in acute airway distress.
Since the treatment of acute airway distress can depend greatly on the etiology of the problem, it is important to know the clinical presentation of different causes of airway distress. Interpreting both patients' presenting signs and symptoms in conjunction with physical examination, laryngoscopy when appropriate, and ancillary testing is essential to determine the etiology of obstruction and proper management. Causes of acute airway obstruction include infections, immunologic reactions, trauma, and foreign body obstruction.
This paper explores the nature and chronology of La Tène and early Roman unenclosed agglomerations in central-eastern France. It has been prompted by the discovery of a c. 115 ha La Tène D2b/Augustan (c. 50 BC to AD 15) site close to Bibracte in the Morvan, located around the source of the River Yonne. This complex provides a new perspective on the chronology and role of Late La Tène and early Roman unenclosed settlements, adding further complexity to the story of the development of Late La Tène oppida. It indicates that these ‘agglomerations’ followed remarkably varied chronological trajectories, raising important issues concerning the nature of landscape and social change at the end of the Iron Age.
In the 1980s, a wave of new–extremely clever and detailed–studies revolutionized the Japanese politics field. The empirical findings of this ‘new paradigm’ literature remain the conventional wisdom on Japanese policy-making patterns under the ‘1955 System’. In this paper, we offer a critical reinterpretation of the new paradigm literature. We do not offer new empirical analysis, but, rather, reconsider this conventional wisdom by putting a new spin on the evidence previous authors utilized to analyze the policy-making process in Japan under the 1955 System. Contrary to the conventional view of strong central bureaucratic power, we argue that in the 1960s policy making was quite fragmented. In contrast to literature suggesting substantial politician influence in the 1980s, we argue that there was a decline in the influence of politicians in general in policy making.
Jean and John Comaroff's paper provides an elegant narrative describing the processes at work behind the adoption of coinage amongst the Tswana of southern Africa under the influence of European missionaries and colonists. My own particular interests are set back two thousand years earlier with the adoption of coin in France and Britain. At this time Rome was the up-and-coming imperial power engaged in trade, and then conquest, stretching its area of influence and dominions from the Mediterranean littoral into temperate Europe. As such I envy the Comaroff's ability to use a rich array of source material that is unavailable to me with my much poorer archaeological remains and fragmentary literary sources. None the less, many of the themes have echoes of processes that must have taken place many years before in this other time and place.
Both Greg Woolf and Jan Slofstra have written articles that consider the theoretical agendas of archaeologists constructing narratives of the early Roman period. Then, both go on to construct their own narratives of change in two contiguous, but rather different areas of temperate Europe. In general I find the first part of their narratives as constructed more theoretically in harmony than their discourse on theory would suggest. I would like to pick up on three themes which I felt cross both papers: first on the nature of memory and kingship; secondly on the issue of Romanisation; and finally on the development of rural settlement or ‘villas’.
So far we have seen how our dynasts identified themselves with the Principate, using the visual language of the Augustan revolution in much the same way as other members of the Roman elite. We have also seen evidence for their contacts with other friendly kings, most notably Juba II and Ptolemy of Mauretania. Much of the visual language which they used probably left a large proportion of the British audience completely mystified. However, not all the imagery was impenetrable, and much of the coinage of the later dynasts was more ‘open’, communicating clearer messages to the populace about how they wished to be perceived. This chapter is concerned with the additional strategies developed by our dynasts to set themselves apart from their peers and to establish their authority. The evidence to be discussed is fairly broad and spans themes including ‘self-image’, burial, sacrifice and the foundation of oppida. In each case the imagery from their dynastic coinage will be linked to a variety of other forms of archaeological evidence. However, to start off the chapter we must again return to Rome to understand a little bit more of what Tincomarus or Tasciovanus may have witnessed there as children, had they been there – which I guess they had.
Experience in Rome
Living in the city would have been a feast for the senses.
Cunobelin, Shakespeare's Cymbeline, ruled much of south-east Britain in the years before Claudius' legions arrived, creating the Roman province of Britannia. But what do we know of him and his rule, and that of competing dynasties in south-east Britain? This book examines the background to these, the first individuals in British history. It explores the way in which rulers bolstered their power through the use of imagery on coins, myths, language and material culture. After the visit of Caesar in 55 and 54 BC, the shadow of Rome played a fundamental role in this process. Combining the archaeological, literary and numismatic evidence, John Creighton paints a vivid picture of how people in late Iron Age Britain reacted to the changing world around them.
From the mid-second century BC, coin became a familiar sight amongst the British elite and possibly a broader audience as well. People got used to how it looked and what it felt like. Whilst we can only guess at what they knew, they probably understood what the images stood for and what they symbolised. They understood the social function and role which coinage was meant to fulfil. The serial tradition meant that whilst the image might vary slightly from issue to issue, one knew roughly what to expect. Even the shift in the imagery beginning with British Q and L maintained the Apollo/Horse image. When inscriptions appeared on coins for the first time, they were slotted in around the serial images (Commius, Phase 6). However, when his ‘son’ arrived in Phase 7, all that changed.
Tincomarus' first issues were almost identical to those of Commius, and continued the serial imagery. But the images on his subsequent coinage marked a radical shift in the entire aesthetic and language of coin. For the first time we get clear, unambiguous classical imagery on coin (Stage 3: Fig. 2.3). This was no subtle alteration of coin types; the advent of these new motifs marked an abrupt alteration from the continuity of serial tradition which had hitherto existed. The effect was as radical as if one of the Enigma Variations had ventured into the realms of atonality, or Columbo had put on an Armani suit.