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Specimens of Nautilus species caught in the wild show a marked increase in oxygen isotopic composition between embryonic and postembryonic septa. The significance of this increase in terms of the early life history of Nautilus has been unclear. To help explain this pattern, we analyzed the isotopic composition of the septa of three specimens of Nautilus belauensis raised in aquariums under controlled temperature conditions. Our results indicate that both embryonic and postembryonic septa are secreted with the same temperature-dependent fractionation of aragonite relative to water as that of other aragonite-secreting molluscs (Grossman and Ku 1986). The δ18O values of the septa thus provide a reliable means of determining the water temperature in which the septa form. Calculated temperatures based on oxygen isotopic data from specimens caught in the wild reveal that embryonic development occurs at 22°-24° corresponding to a depth of 100-200 m depending on the location. The increase in δ18O in postembryonic septa reflects a migration into colder, deeper water after hatching. In Cretaceous nautilids, a systematic shift in δ18O is not present, indicating that these animals probably did not change their habitat after hatching. This is consistent with the likelihood that they lived in shallower environments than that of modern Nautilus.
To investigate the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence in a population-based sample of heterosexual women.
Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between three levels of food insecurity and intimate partner violence.
Data from 6 years of the California Women’s Health Survey.
Randomly selected women (n 16 562) aged 18 years and older from the State of California, USA.
We found: (i) that African-American women had a higher prevalence of food insecurity and were more likely to report severe intimate partner violence; (ii) a strong positive association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence; (iii) evidence of effect modification of the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence by marital status; and (iv) higher odds of intimate partner violence among those reporting more severe food insecurity.
Food insecurity is an important risk indicator for intimate partner violence among women. Understanding the factors that put women, especially minority women, at greatest risk facilitates intervention development.
To determine whether central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) increase the likelihood of readmission.
Retrospective matched cohort study for the years 2008–2009.
Acute care hospitals.
Medicare recipients. CLABSI and readmission status were determined by linking National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance data to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Medical Provider and Analysis Review in 8 states. Frequency matching was used on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code category and intensive care unit status.
We compared the rate of readmission among patients with and without CLABSI during an index hospitalization. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to assess rate of readmission (the first hospitalization within 30 days after index discharge). Multivariate models included the following covariates: race, sex, length of index hospitalization stay, central line procedure code, Gagne comorbidity score, and individual chronic conditions.
Of the 8,097 patients, 2,260 were readmitted within 30 days (27.9%). The rate of first readmission was 7.1 events/person-year for CLABSI patients and 4.3 events/person-year for non-CLABSI patients (P<.001). The final model revealed a small but significant increase in the rate of 30-day readmissions for patients with a CLABSI compared with similar non-CLABSI patients. In the first readmission for CLABSI patients, we also observed an increase in diagnostic categories consistent with CLABSI, including septicemia and complications of a device.
Our analysis found a statistically significant association between CLABSI status and readmission, suggesting that CLABSI may have adverse health impact that extends beyond hospital discharge.
John Dundas Cochrane (1780–1825) was destined for the sea from an early age, but is best remembered as 'the Pedestrian Traveller'. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, he set out on a six-year tour of France, Spain and Portugal on foot. When in 1820 the Admiralty turned down his offer to explore the river Niger, he decided instead to walk round the world via Russia, Siberia and North America. On his arrival in St Petersburg, the Russian government gave him money to continue his journey using sledges and canoes where necessary, but he abandoned it in Kamchatka, marrying a local woman and returning with her to England. This account of his travels was published in 1824 and was immediately popular, going into several editions. By no means a scientific survey, it is full of interesting anecdotes and observations about a then unknown and mysterious area of the world.