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The Wilkes Land Gravity Anomaly, first reported in 1959–60, is located in northern Victoria Land in the Pacific Ocean sector of East Antarctica, 1400 km west of the Ross Sea and centred at 70°00'S-140°00'E. Initially described on the basis of ground-based seismic and gravity survey, and estimated at the time to have a diameter of 243 km, the original data are now supplemented by data from airborne radiosound survey, airborne gravity survey, airborne magnetic survey and satellite remote sensing. These new data enable us to expand upon the original data, and reveal that the structure has a diameter of some 510 km, is accompanied by ice streams and a chaotically disturbed region of the continental ice sheet, has a subglacial topographical relief of ≥1500 m, and exhibits a negative free air gravity anomaly associated with a larger central positive free air gravity anomaly. The feature has been described as a volcanic structure, an igneous intrusion, an ancient igneous diapir, a subglacial sedimentary basin, a glacially eroded subglacial valley, a tectonic feature and a meteorite impact crater. We re-examine the feature on the basis of these collective data, with emphasis on the free air gravity anomaly signs, magnitudes and patterns, magnetic signature magnitudes and patterns, and the size, shape, dimensions and morphology of the structure. This enhanced view adds substantially to the original description provided at the time of discovery, and suggests several explanations for the origin of the Wilkes Land Anomaly. However, the importance of this feature lies not only in determining its origin but by the fact that this part of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin is one of the most prominent regional negative geoid and associated gravity anomalies of the Antarctic continent.
Political homogeneity within a scientific field nurtures threats to the validity of many research conclusions by allowing ideologically compatible values to influence interpretations, by minimizing skepticism, and by creating premature consensus. Although validity threats can crop in any research, the usual corrective activities in science are more likely to be minimized and delayed.
The 2013 Infection Prevention and Control (IP&C) Guideline for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) was commissioned by the CF Foundation as an update of the 2003 Infection Control Guideline for CF. During the past decade, new knowledge and new challenges provided the following rationale to develop updated IP&C strategies for this unique population:
1. The need to integrate relevant recommendations from evidence-based guidelines published since 2003 into IP&C practices for CF. These included guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and key professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). During the past decade, new evidence has led to a renewed emphasis on source containment of potential pathogens and the role played by the contaminated healthcare environment in the transmission of infectious agents. Furthermore, an increased understanding of the importance of the application of implementation science, monitoring adherence, and feedback principles has been shown to increase the effectiveness of IP&C guideline recommendations.
2. Experience with emerging pathogens in the non-CF population has expanded our understanding of droplet transmission of respiratory pathogens and can inform IP&C strategies for CF. These pathogens include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the 2009 influenza A H1N1. Lessons learned about preventing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens in non-CF patient populations also can inform IP&C strategies for CF.
The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB), the largest subglacial basin in East Antarctica, is a topographic depression of continental proportions that lies beneath the East Antarctic continental ice sheet. Discovered by the US Victoria Land Traverse 1959–60, the origin of the WSB and the influence of palaeoclimate on its overlying continental ice sheet have remained uncertain since the time of its discovery. Most explanations of origin favour lithospheric structural control as a function of tectonic activity. Lithospheric flexure due to thermally or isostatically induced uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains was suggested in the 1980s. Lithospheric extension and rifting was proposed in the 1990s. More recent investigations have revealed the presence of fold and thrust belts, casting doubt on flexural and extensional hypotheses as the primary mechanisms, suggesting instead a compressional scenario. While remaining inconclusive, these tectonic mechanisms in one form or another, or in combination, are now believed to have provided the structural control for the origin of the WSB. Not yet comprehensively examined, however, is the role of non-tectonic processes in the formation of the WSB, as they may have influenced the size, configuration, subglacial sedimentation and subglacial topography of the WSB. In this paper we review the tectonic hypotheses and examine post-tectonic climate change along with glacial and marine processes as potentially significant factors in the present condition and configuration of the WSB. In the process, we find that there are a number of features not included in previous investigations that may have been major factors in the modification of the subglacial basin.
What is a habitable planet? There is no formal definition at present, but the term is generally understood to mean a planet that can sustain life in some form. This concept is of limited use in practice since the conditions required to support life are poorly constrained. A narrower definition of a habitable planet is one that shares some characteristics with Earth, and hence one that could support at least some of Earth's inhabitants. A commonly adopted minimum requirement is that a planet can sustain liquid water on its surface for geological periods of time. Earth is the only body in the Solar System that qualifies as habitable in this sense. One advantage of this definition is that it can be used to categorize hypothetical and observable planets in a relatively straightforward manner, and we will use it in the rest of this chapter. However, one should bear in mind that not all life-sustaining environments will be included under this definition. Tidally heated satellites of giant planets, like Europa, are likely to possess oceans of liquid water beneath a layer of ice (Cassen et al., 1979), but these objects would not be ‘habitable’ according to the conventional usage.
Planets that can support liquid water at their surface must have an atmosphere, and surface temperatures and pressures within a certain range. These planets will occupy a particular range of orbital distances from their star that is commonly referred to as the star's habitable zone (HZ).
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a useful modality for imaging cardiac masses. Atrial myxomas account for 90% of all cardiac tumors found at operation, and 50% of tumors found at autopsy. Pericardial cysts are frequently asymptomatic and may be an incidental finding. Mediastinal cysts, including bronchogenic and duplication cysts, may occur. These have a more echodense appearance on TEE, and may contain thicker mucilaginous material that may layer differently with postural change. Cardiac tamponade may be defined as the decompensated phase of cardiac compression resulting from increased intrapericardial pressure. Constrictive pericarditis is characterized by a fibrotic, inflamed, or calcified pericardial sac. In patients with a suspected cardiac mass, transesophageal echocardiography is recommended for determining its nature, and the assessment of sources of cardiac embolism. It may be particularly useful in patients with loculated or trapped pericardial fluid, for example in the post-operative setting.
Abstract Here we describe the formation of rocky planets and asteroids in the context of the planetesimal hypothesis. Small dust grains in protoplanetary disks readily stick together forming millimeter-to-centimeter-sized aggregates, many of which experience brief heating episodes causing melting. Growth to kilometer-sized planetesimals might proceed via continued pairwise sticking, turbulent concentration, or gravitational instability of a thin particle layer. Gravitational interactions between planetesimals lead to rapid runaway and oligarchic growth forming lunar to Marssized protoplanets in 105 to 106 years. Giant impacts between protoplanets form Earth-mass planets in 107 to 108 years, and occasionally lead to the formation of large satellites. Protoplanets may migrate far from their formation locations due to tidal interactions with the surrounding disk. Radioactive decay and impact heating cause melting and differentiation of planetesimals and protoplanets, forming ironrich cores and silicatemantles, and leading to some loss of volatiles. Dynamical perturbations from giant planets eject most planetesimals and protoplanets from regions near orbital resonances, leading to Asteroid Belt formation. Some of this scattered material will collide with growing terrestrial planets, altering their composition as a result. Numerical simulations and radioisotope dating indicate that the terrestrial planets of the Solar System were essentially fully formed in 100–200 million years.
The formation of rocky planets marks the last stage in the evolution of a protoplanetary disk, extending beyond the dissipation of the gas disk itself. The seeds of planet formation are micrometer-sized dust grains that make up roughly 1% of the mass of a typical protoplanetary disk. In the Solar System, some 1040 of these grains evolved into a handful of rocky planets in the space of 10–100 million years – a remarkable transformation indeed.
Background. The ability to inhibit inappropriate or unwanted actions is a key element of executive control. The existence of executive function deficits in schizophrenia is consistent with frontal lobe theories of the disorder. Relatively few studies have examined response inhibition in schizophrenia, and none in adolescent patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS).
Methods. Twenty-one adolescents with the onset of clinically impairing psychosis before 19 years of age and 16 matched controls performed a stop-signal task to assess response inhibition. The patients with EOS were categorized as paranoid (n=10) and undifferentiated subtypes (n=11). The undifferentiated group had higher levels of negative symptomatology. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and go-signal reaction time (Go-RT) were analysed with respect to hand of response.
Results. The undifferentiated early-onset patients had significantly longer SSRTs, indicative of poor response inhibition, for the left hand compared to the paranoid early-onset patients and control participants. No differences existed for inhibitory control with the right hand. The three groups did not differ in Go-RT.
Conclusions. Our results indicate a specific lateralized impairment of response inhibition in patients with undifferentiated, but not paranoid, EOS. These findings are consistent with reports of immature frontostriatal networks in EOS and implicate areas such as the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) that are thought to play a role in both voluntary initiation and inhibition of movement.
The diversity of ectomycorrhizal mycobionts of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) from coral cays in the Capricorn-Bunker group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, was examined. Only two ectomycorrhiza morphotypes (brown and black) were identified in soil from seven cays and DNA from both morphotypes was subjected to ITS-RFLP and sequence analysis. The brown morphotype was present in soil from all cays but the black morphotype was only observed in soil from three cays. ITS-RFLP analysis showed that the brown and black morphotypes were formed by different fungal taxa, with the RFLP pattern for the black morphotype being consistent with that of the culture previously obtained from black ectomycorrhizal roots on Heron Island. Comparison with the GenBank database revealed that closest matches to both morphotypes were sequences for various Thelephoraceae (Basidiomycota), but the brown and black morphotypes had only 80% sequence similarity to each other. Neighbour-joining analysis of these sequences with sequences for other Thelephoraceae grouped the brown and black morphotypes in a well-supported clade with several Tomentella species, suggesting that both belong to this genus. The data are discussed in relation to ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and the coral cay habitat.
It has been proposed that Uranus and Neptune originated interior to ∽ 10 AU, as potential gas giant cores which were scattered outward when Jupiter won the race to reach runaway gas accretion. We present further numerical simulations of this scenario, which show that it reproduces the present configuration of the outer Solar System with a high degree of success for a wide range of initial conditions. Also, we show that this mechanism may have simultaneously ejected planets from the asteroid belt.
Basidiomes of Amanita alboverrucosa, A. ochrophylla, and A. pyramidifera were collected from native mixed sclerophyll forest sites and of A. conicoverrucosa and A. punctata from planted stands of Eucalyptus maculata in New South Wales, Australia. DNA was extracted from stipe tissue and subjected to inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) PCR analysis conducted using the primers (GTG)5 and (GACA)4 in order to determine genotype distribution at each site. Two to nine genotypes of one of the species were identified at each field site. Genotypes of A. ochrophylla, A. conicoverrucosa and A. punctata were spread over areas of ca 10–60 m diam, suggesting vegetative spread via large below-ground mycelial genets. In contrast, genotypes of A. alboverrucosa were more spatially restricted, suggesting recent establishment via basidiospores and more limited below-ground vegetative spread. Two groups of A. pyramidifera basidiomes that were separated by ca 600 m were found to be of the same genotype. While this might reflect long distance spread of below-ground mycelium in this taxon, the proximity of the basidiomes to a roadway makes movement of vegetative basidiome tissue via vehicular activity and subsequent establishment equally plausible.
Inter-simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) was used to develop markers for simple sequence repeat-rich (SSR) regions for investigation of genetic relatedness of Pisolithus isolates collected from eastern mainland Australia. Primers were designed to amplify ten SSR-rich regions and these were used to screen 14 Pisolithus isolates. Two amplified loci showed size polymorphisms among the isolates (regarded as polymorphic), two were monomorphic for all isolates, while the remainder amplified alleles for only some isolates. UPGMA analysis of the alleles for each isolate at each locus together with ITS-RFLP analysis, separated the isolates into two groups. These two groups appear to correspond to isolates that ITS sequence data have previously separated as P. albus and P. microcarpus.
The abilities of isolates of Amanita alboverrucosa, A. conicoverrucosa, A. fuscosquamosa, A. nauseosa, A. ochrophylla, A. pyramidifera, A. roseolamellata, A. xanthocephala and six unidentified Amanita species from eastern Australian temperate sclerophyll forests to utilise a range of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for growth was examined in axenic liquid cultures. All taxa utilised NH4+ and at least some amino acids readily, while biomass yields on NO3− and histidine were generally low. All taxa were able to utilise bovine serum albumin, but for most taxa biomass yields on this substrate were significantly lower than on NH4+. Significant intraspecific variation in biomass yield was observed on all substrates for taxa for which multiple isolates were screened. As a group, eastern Australian Amanita species thus have the potential to utilise nitrogen from a broad range of organic substrates and this might be important in the nitrogen nutrition of their ectomycorrhizal tree hosts in sclerophyll forests.