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Malformed trilobite specimens present important insight into understanding how this extinct arthropod group recovered from developmental or moulting malfunctions, pathologies, and injuries. Previously documented examples of malformed trilobite specimens are often considered in isolation, with few studies reporting on multiple malformations in the same species. Here we report malformed specimens of the ellipsocephaloid trilobite Estaingia bilobata from the Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagerstätte (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Ten malformed specimens exhibiting injuries, pathologies, and a range of teratologies are documented. Furthermore, five examples of mangled exoskeletons are presented, indicative of predation on E. bilobata. Considering the position of malformed and normal specimens of E. bilobata in bivariate space, we demonstrate that the majority of malformed specimens cluster among the larger individuals. Such specimens may exemplify larger forms successfully escaping predation attempts, but could equally represent individuals exhibiting old injuries that were made during earlier (smaller) growth stages that have healed through subsequent moulting events. The available evidence from the Emu Bay Shale suggests that this small, extremely abundant trilobite likely played an important role in the structure of the local ecosystem, occupying a low trophic level and being preyed upon by multiple durophagous arthropods. Furthermore, the scarcity of malformed E. bilobata specimens demonstrates how rarely injuries, developmental malfunctions, and pathological infestations occurred within the species.
Dithiopyr and dinitroanilines are preemergence-applied, mitotic-inhibiting herbicides used to control goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] in turfgrass. A suspected resistant E. indica population was collected from a golf course putting green and was evaluated for possible resistance to dithiopyr and prodiamine. After dose–response evaluation, the α-tubulin gene was sequenced for known target-site mutations that have been reported to confer resistance to mitotic-inhibiting herbicides. A mutation was discovered that resulted in an amino acid substitution at position 136 from leucine to phenylalanine (Leu-136-Phe). Previous research has indicated that Leu-136-Phe does confer resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. The level of resistance indicated by regression models and I50 values indicates that there is 54.1-, 4.7-, >100-, and >100-fold resistance to dithiopyr, prodiamine, pendimethalin, and oryzalin, respectively, when compared with the susceptible population based on seedling emergence response and 88.4-, 7.8-, >100-, and >100-fold resistance to dithiopyr, prodiamine, pendimethalin, and oryzalin, respectively, when compared with the susceptible population based on biomass reduction response. This is the first report of less resistance to prodiamine compared with pendimethalin or oryzalin due to a target-site α-tubulin mutation and the first report of a target-site α-tubulin mutation associated with dithiopyr resistance.
To assess the overall burden and outcomes of acute respiratory infections in paediatric inpatients with congenital heart disease (CHD).
This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of non-neonates <1 year with CHD in the Kid’s Inpatient Database from 2012. We compared demographics, clinical characteristics, cost, length of stay, and mortality rate for those with and without respiratory infections. We also compared those with respiratory infections who had critical CHD versus non-critical CHD. Multi-variable regression analyses were done to look for associations between respiratory infections and mortality, length of stay, and cost.
Of the 28,696 infants with CHD in our sample, 26% had respiratory infections. Respiratory infection-associated hospitalisations accounted for $440 million in costs (32%) for all CHD patients. After adjusting for confounders including severity, mortality was higher for those with respiratory infections (OR 1.5, p = 0.003), estimated mean length of stay was longer (14.7 versus 12.2 days, p < 0.001), and estimated mean costs were higher ($53,760 versus $46,526, p < 0.001). Compared to infants with respiratory infections and non-critical CHD, infants with respiratory infections and critical CHD had higher mortality (4.5 versus 2.3%, p < 0.001), longer mean length of stay (20.1 versus 15.5 days, p < 0.001), and higher mean costs ($94,284 versus $52,585, p < 0.001).
Acute respiratory infections are a significant burden on infant inpatients with CHD and are associated with higher mortality, costs, and longer length of stay; particularly in those with critical CHD. Future interventions should focus on reducing the burden of respiratory infections in this population.
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychotic disorders, but the profile of impairment across adulthood, particularly in African-American populations, remains unclear.
Using cross-sectional data from a case–control study of African-American adults with affective (n = 59) and nonaffective (n = 68) psychotic disorders, we examined cognitive functioning between early and middle adulthood (ages 20–60) on measures of general cognitive ability, language, abstract reasoning, processing speed, executive function, verbal memory, and working memory.
Both affective and nonaffective psychosis patients showed substantial and widespread cognitive impairments. However, comparison of cognitive functioning between controls and psychosis groups throughout early (ages 20–40) and middle (ages 40–60) adulthood also revealed age-associated group differences. During early adulthood, the nonaffective psychosis group showed increasing impairments with age on measures of general cognitive ability and executive function, while the affective psychosis group showed increasing impairment on a measure of language ability. Impairments on other cognitive measures remained mostly stable, although decreasing impairments on measures of processing speed, memory and working memory were also observed.
These findings suggest similarities, but also differences in the profile of cognitive dysfunction in adults with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders. Both affective and nonaffective patients showed substantial and relatively stable impairments across adulthood. The nonaffective group also showed increasing impairments with age in general and executive functions, and the affective group showed an increasing impairment in verbal functions, possibly suggesting different underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms.
Nuclear wastes generated from reprocessing of used nuclear fuel tend to contain a large fraction of rare earth (RE, e.g., Nd3+), transition (TM, e.g., Mo6+, Zr4+), alkali (A, e.g., Cs+), and alkaline earth cations (AE, e.g., Ba2+, Sr2+). Various strategies have been considered for immobilizing such waste streams, varying from nominally crystal-free glass to glass-ceramic to multi-phase ceramic waste forms. For glass and glass-ceramic waste forms, the added glass-forming system is generally alkali-alkaline earth-aluminoborosilicate (i.e., Na-Ca-Al-B-Si oxide). In a US-UK collaborative project, summarized here, we investigated the glass structure and crystallization dependence on compositional changes in simulated nuclear waste glasses and glass-ceramics. Compositions ranged in complexity from five – to – eight oxides. Specifically, the roles of Mo and rare earths are investigated, since a proposed glass-ceramic waste form contains crystalline phases such as powellite [(AE,A,RE)MoO4] and oxyapatite [(RE,AE,A)10Si6O26], and the precipitation of molybdenum phases is known to be affected by the rare earth concentration in the glass. Additionally, the effects of other chemical additions have been systematically investigated, including Zr, Ru, P, and Ti. A series of studies were also undertaken to ascertain the effect of the RE size on glass structure and on partitioning to crystal phases, investigating similarities and differences in glasses containing single RE oxides of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Er, Yb, or Lu. Finally, the effect of charge compensation was investigated by considering not only the commonly assessed peralkaline glass but also metaluminous and peraluminous compositions. Glass structure and crystallization studies were conducted by spectroscopic methods (i.e., Raman, X-ray absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), optical absorption, photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), microscopy (i.e., scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis), scattering (i.e., X-ray and neutron diffraction, small angle measurements), and physical characterization (i.e., differential thermal analysis, liquidus, viscosity, density). This paper will give an overview of the research program and some example unpublished results on glass-ceramic crystallization kinetics, microstructure, and Raman spectra, as well as some examples of the effects of rare earths on the absorption, luminescence, and NMR spectra of starting glasses. The formal collaboration described here has resulted in the generation of a large number of results, some of which are still in the process of being published as separate studies.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
Cave sediments from Stump Cross Cave in northern England contain Pleistocene mammal remains. Uranium-series dating of calcium carbonate deposits closely associated with the fossiliferous horizons has established an absolute age of 83,000 ± 6000 yr B.P. for a faunal assemblage largely comprised of wolverines (Gulo gulo). This date lies firmly within the younger portion of oxygen-isotope stage 5. The occurrence of wolverines in the vicinity of Stump Cross Cave at ca. 83,000 yr B.P. indicates a significant climatic deterioration from ca. 120,000 yr B.P., when an Ipswichian interglacial fauna with hippopotamus was present in this part of northern England.
Only two spinach herbicides are currently available to producers, and with limited choices in herbicide mode of action (MOA), overuse of the current herbicides can result in dominance of uncontrolled weeds. Therefore, spinach producers need more herbicide options. Trials were conducted in processing spinach to evaluate the crop safety of dimethenamid-p (0.56 kg ai/ha), EPTC (2.94 to 3.40 kg ai/ha), or ethofumesate (0.84, 1.12 or 2.24 kg ai/ha) applied pre-emergent (PRE), and ethofumesate (0.09 or 0.18 kg ai/ha) applied early postemergent (EPOST) for potential use as alternatives to s-metolachlor (0.73 kg ai/ha) and cycloate (2.52 kg ai/ha). The control of London rocket was excellent with s-metolachlor, dimethenamid-p, and ethofumesate. Weed control with cycloate and EPTC was fair, and generally inferior to all others. Cycloate and s-metolachlor were safe to spinach, and only minor crop injury was observed with all other herbicides, except the high rate of ethofumesate PRE, which resulted in high levels of injury. Spinach outgrew all early herbicide injury with no significant yield losses. Ethofumesate applied EPOST caused no injury in year 1, although in year 2 injury was higher in all plots where it was applied twice, regardless of rate. In high-density plantings, dimethenamid-p caused significant crop injury to spinach, but only at one location on a sandy loam soil. In that trial, yields in dimethenamid-p plots were reduced an average 30% compared to the hand-weeded and s-metolachlor plots. As a result of this research, dimethenamid-p, EPTC, and ethofumesate should be considered candidates for expanded-use registrations in processing spinach production. More research is needed to determine additional rates and use patterns for improved crop safety, as well as an evaluation of soil types and spinach varieties.
Relatively few radiometrically dated records are available for the central Mediterranean spanning the marine oxygen isotope stage 6–5 (MIS 6–5) transition and the first part of the Last Interglacial. Two flowstone cores from Tana che Urla Cave (TCU, central Italy), constrained by 19 U/Th ages, preserve an interval of continuous speleothem deposition between ca. 159 and 121 ka. A multiproxy record (δ18O, δ13C, growth rate and petrographic changes) obtained from this flowstone preserves significant regional-scale hydrological changes through the glacial/interglacial transition and multi-centennial variability (interpreted as alternations between wetter and drier periods) within both glacial and interglacial stages. The glacial stage shows a wetter period between ca. 154 and 152 ka, while the early to middle Last Interglacial period shows several drying events at ca. 129, 126 and 122 ka, which can be placed in the wider context of climatic instability emerging from North Atlantic marine and NW European terrestrial records. The TCU record also provides important insights into the evolution of local environmental conditions (i.e. soil development) in response to regional and global-scale climate events.
This study details the characterization of a glass sample exposed to hyperalkaline water and calcium-rich sediment for an extended time period (estimated as 2 - 70 years) at a lime (CaO) waste site in the UK. We introduce this site, known as Peak Dale, in reference to its use as a natural analogue for nuclear waste glass dissolution in the high pH environment of a cementitious engineered barrier of a geological disposal facility. In particular, a preliminary assessment of alteration layer chemistry and morphology is described and the initiation of a long-term durability assessment is outlined.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.