To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To validate digitally displayed photographic portion-size estimation aids (PSEA) against a weighed meal record and compare findings with an atlas of printed photographic PSEA and actual prepared-food PSEA in a low-income country.
Participants served themselves water and five prepared foods, which were weighed separately before the meal and again after the meal to measure any leftovers. Participants returned the following day and completed a meal recall. They estimated the quantities of foods consumed three times using the different PSEA in a randomized order.
Two urban and two rural communities in southern Malawi.
Women (n 300) aged 18–45 years, equally divided by urban/rural residence and years of education (≤4 years and ≥5 years).
Responses for digital and printed PSEA were highly correlated (>91 % agreement for all foods, Cohen’s κw = 0·78–0·93). Overall, at the individual level, digital and actual-food PSEA had a similar level of agreement with the weighed meal record. At the group level, the proportion of participants who estimated within 20 % of the weighed grams of food consumed ranged by type of food from 30 to 45 % for digital PSEA and 40–56 % for actual-food PSEA. Digital PSEA consistently underestimated grams and nutrients across foods, whereas actual-food PSEA provided a mix of under- and overestimates that balanced each other to produce accurate mean energy and nutrient intake estimates. Results did not differ by urban and rural location or participant education level.
Digital PSEA require further testing in low-income settings to improve accuracy of estimations.
To determine if supplementation with corn–soya blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) improved the weight gain of moderately underweight infants and children when provided through the national health service.
A randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial. Infants and children were randomised to receive for 12 weeks an average daily ration of 71 g CSB or 43 g LNS, providing 1188 kJ and 920 kJ, respectively, or no supplement (control). Main outcome was weight gain. Secondary outcomes included changes in anthropometric indices and incidence of serious adverse events. Intention-to-treat analyses were used.
Kukalanga, Koche, Katema and Jalasi health centres in Mangochi District, rural Malawi.
Underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <−2) infants and children aged 6–15 months (n 299).
Mean weight gain was 630 g, 680 g and 750 g in control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0·21). When adjusted for baseline age, children receiving LNS gained on average 90 g more weight (P = 0·185) and their weight-for-length Z-score increased 0·22 more (P = 0·049) compared with those receiving no supplementation. No statistically significant differences were observed between the CSB and control groups in mean weight and length gain.
LNS supplementation provided during the lean season via through the national health service was associated with a modest increase in weight. However, the effect size was lower than that previously reported under more controlled research settings.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.