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To evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on Twitch.tv (Twitch), a social media platform where individuals broadcast live audiovisual material to millions of daily users.
Observational analysis of the prevalence of 238 food and beverage brands in five distinct categories (processed snacks; food delivery services and restaurants; candies, energy drinks/coffees/teas; and sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages) over the course of 18 months.
Twitch streamer profiles and stream titles between January 2018 and July 2019. Twitch chat room messages during July 2019.
There was a significant increase in brand exposure on Twitch both in stream titles (sodas and candies, P < 0·05) and on streamer profiles (sodas, restaurants/food delivery services, candies, and energy drinks/coffees/teas, P < 0·05) over the 18-month study period. Energy drinks, coffees and teas had the most exposure with 1·08 billion exposure hours from profiles and 83 million exposure hours from titles. Restaurants/food delivery services and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently mentioned products in chat rooms with 1·24 million messages and 1·10 million messages, respectively.
This study is the first to demonstrate the extent by which food and beverage brands garner millions of hours of exposure on Twitch. Future studies should evaluate the impact that this level of exposure to nutrient-poor, energy-dense products may have on behavioural and health outcomes.
The lower Mississippian Ballagan Formation of northern Britain is one of only two successions worldwide to yield the earliest known tetrapods with terrestrial capability following the end-Devonian mass extinction event. Studies of the sedimentary environments and habitats in which these beasts lived have been an integral part of a major research project into how, why and under what circumstances this profound step in the evolution of life on Earth occurred. Here, a new palaeogeographic map is constructed from outcrop data integrated with new and archived borehole material. The map shows the extent of a very low-relief coastal wetland developed along the tropical southern continental margin of Laurussia. Coastal floodplains in the Midland Valley and Tweed basins were separated from the marginal marine seaway of the Northumberland–Solway Basin to the south by an archipelago of more elevated areas. A complex mosaic of sedimentary environments was juxtaposed, and included fresh and brackish to saline and hypersaline lakes, a diverse suite of floodplain palaeosols and a persistent fluvial system in the east of the region. The strongly seasonal climate led to the formation of evaporite deposits alternating with flooding events, both meteoric and marine. Storm surges drove marine floods from the SW into both the western Midland Valley and Northumberland–Solway Basin; marine water also flooded into the Tweed Basin and Tayside in the east. The Ballagan Formation is a rare example in the geological record of a tropical, seasonal coastal wetland that contains abundant, small-scale evaporite deposits. The diverse sedimentary environments and palaeosol types indicate a network of different terrestrial and aquatic habitats in which the tetrapods lived.
Scales are widely used in psychiatric assessments following self-harm. Robust evidence for their diagnostic use is lacking.
To evaluate the performance of risk scales (Manchester Self-Harm Rule, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, SAD PERSONS scale, Modified SAD PERSONS scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale); and patient and clinician estimates of risk in identifying patients who repeat self-harm within 6 months.
A multisite prospective cohort study was conducted of adults aged 18 years and over referred to liaison psychiatry services following self-harm. Scale a priori cut-offs were evaluated using diagnostic accuracy statistics. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to determine optimal cut-offs and compare global accuracy.
In total, 483 episodes of self-harm were included in the study. The episode-based 6-month repetition rate was 30% (n = 145). Sensitivity ranged from 1% (95% CI 0–5) for the SAD PERSONS scale, to 97% (95% CI 93–99) for the Manchester Self-Harm Rule. Positive predictive values ranged from 13% (95% CI 2–47) for the Modified SAD PERSONS Scale to 47% (95% CI 41–53) for the clinician assessment of risk. The AUC ranged from 0.55 (95% CI 0.50–0.61) for the SAD PERSONS scale to 0.74 (95% CI 0.69–0.79) for the clinician global scale. The remaining scales performed significantly worse than clinician and patient estimates of risk (P < 0.001).
Risk scales following self-harm have limited clinical utility and may waste valuable resources. Most scales performed no better than clinician or patient ratings of risk. Some performed considerably worse. Positive predictive values were modest. In line with national guidelines, risk scales should not be used to determine patient management or predict self-harm.
Bettertonite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]•11H2O and penberthycroftite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5].8H2O, two new minerals from the Penberthy Croft mine, Cornwall, have flexible layer structures based on corner-connected heteropolyhedral columns. Their response to dehydration on heating was studied using in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction at temperatures in the range -53 to 157°C. The bettertonite sample transforms to penberthycroftite in a narrow temperature range of 67 to 97°C with a large (8%) contraction of the layer separation and a 6 Å sliding of adjacent layers relative to each other. Above 100°C a second phase transition occurs to a DL (displaced layer) phase, involving another 8% inter-layer contraction combined with a rotation of the columns. On heating the penberthycroftite sample the phase transition to the DL phase occurs at a lower temperature of ∼80°C. The DL phase is stable to a temperature of ∼120°C. At higher temperatures, increased rotation of the columns is accompanied by a progressive amorphization of the sample. Bettertonite, penberthycroftite and the DL phase exhibit negative thermal expansion (NTE) along all three axes with large NTE coefficients, of the order of-100 x 10 -6 °C-1.
Food packaging often pictures supplementary extras, such as toppings or frosting, that are not listed on the nutritional labelling. The present study aimed to assess if these extras might exaggerate how many calories† are pictured and if they lead consumers to overserve.
Four studies were conducted in the context of fifty-one different cake mixes. For these cake mixes, Study 1 compared the calories stated on the nutrition label with the calories of the cake (and frosting) pictured on the box. In Studies 2, 3 and 4, undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3) or food-service professionals (Study 4) were given one of these typical cake mix boxes, with some being told that cake frosting was not included on the nutritional labelling whereas others were provided with no additional information. They were then asked to indicate what they believed to be a reasonable serving size of cake.
Undergraduate students and food-service professionals.
Study 1 showed that the average calories of cake and frosting pictured on the package of fifty-one different cake mixes exceed the calories on the nutritional label by 134 %. Studies 2 and 3 showed that informing consumers that the nutritional information does not include frosting reduces how much people serve. Study 4 showed that even food-service professionals overserve if not told that frosting is not included on the nutritional labelling.
To be less misleading, packaging should either not depict extras in its pictures or it should more boldly and clearly state that extras are not included in calorie counts.
Objective: This is the first trial examining duloxetine for generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) and the effect of increased dose for those without early remission.
Methods: Individuals (n=39) with GSAD received 6 weeks of open-label duloxetine 60 mg/day; those with a Liebowitz Social Anxiety Disorder Scale (LSAS) score >30 at week 6 were randomized in double-blind fashion to an additional 18 weeks of continued duloxetine 60 mg/day or to duloxetine 120 mg/day.
Results: Duloxetine was associated with a significant LSAS reduction at week 6 (91.3 [17.7] to 69.8 [28.5], paired t [df]=5.2 , P<.0001), and randomized participants overall continued to improve at week 24 (74.6 [23.9] to 60.3 [29.7]; paired t [df]=3.3 , P=.0026). Though the increased dose strategy was associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d=.57), there was no significant difference at week 24 endpoint in LSAS reduction (20.5 [26.0] versus 7.3 [17.2], t [df]=1.6 , P=.13) nor remission (33% versus 8%) for duloxetine with dose increased to 120 mg/day compared to duloxetine continued at 60 mg/day. Overall, 44% (17/39) discontinued prior to week 24.
Conclusions: Though with limited power, these data provide preliminary support for the efficacy of duloxetine for GSAD, and suggest continued improvement but limited remission overall at 24 weeks for individuals remaining symptomatic at week 6. These observations warrant further controlled study.
Cahal Tok (Place of Flint) is a limestone rise with some structural evidence, associated with the previously designated LDF Chert Site, close to the ceremonial center of El Pilar. Excavations uncovered evidence that during the Late Classic period, specialized flintknappers produced bifaces, primarily chert axes, at the Cahol Tok locus, first on a cleared limestone shelf then on a prepared cobble platform. Small flakes remained in situ whereas much of the larger debris was deposited to the east off the edge of the platform and into the LDF debitage dump. The identification of a specialized manufacturing locale near the ceremonial precinct of a major center is unusual in Maya archaeology. Central control of an important industry may be implied, although knapping could equally well be organized more independently. We expect that small industrial areas are actually present at most large sites, but may often be difficult to recognize.
Objectives: This study sought to identify potential
predictive variables of death within 6 months in patients with advanced
Methods: Investigators enrolled a consecutive series of
patients with advanced AIDS admitted to a skilled nursing facility in New
York City over a 1-year period. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and
outcome data were abstracted from medical records using a standardized
data collection instrument.
Results: Of the 152 patients enrolled during the study
period, 61 patients (40%) died within 6 months from date of admission.
Serum albumin, percent deviation from ideal body weight, and number of
comorbidities at the time of admission proved to be the best combination
of predictors of death within 6 months.
Significance of results: The decrease in AIDS mortality over
the past decade, along with an increase in prevalence due to longer
survival, has been attributed primarily to the successful use of highly
active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART regimens, however, can also
produce both short-term adverse effects and long-term complications. The
prognostic model developed by this study may be useful in guiding
treatment decisions in patients with advanced AIDS for whom a more
palliative care plan may be sought.
The Amery Ice Shelf Ocean Research (AMISOR) project aims to examine and quantify processes involved in the interaction between the ice shelf, the interior grounded ice and the oceanic water masses that circulate beneath it. Two boreholes were melted through the shelf, within 100 km of the calving front, to access the ocean cavity. One (AM02) was at a site where it was believed that basal melt was occurring, and the other (AM01) was in a region with accreted marine ice. At both sites the summertime ocean structure revealed meltwater-modified boundary layers up to 100 m thick immediately beneath the shelf. Salinity and temperature data in the upper cavity at AM02 showed a strong seasonal cycle as a result of a combination of ice-shelf basal melt, and the intrusion of ocean water masses modified by sea-ice processes in Prydz Bay. At AM01, a 200m thick layer of marine ice underlay the meteoric ice, and showed an increase in salinity and decrease in stable-isotope fractionation with depth. The lowest 100m of marine ice was highly permeable, with a rectangular banded textural facies. Other preliminary results from this study are also reported.
Due to their exceptional thermal properties, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are considered as very promising filler materials for improving the thermal conductivity of conventional polymers. We carefully investigated the thermal conductivity of SWNT/PMMA nanocomposites with SWNT loading in the range up to10 wt% using the comparative technique. The samples were prepared by coagulation method. We demonstrated moderate improvement in the composites’ thermal conductivity of about 250% at 10wt%. The experimental results were analyzed using the versatile Nielsen model, which takes into account many important factors, like the fillers aspect ratio and maximum packing fraction. The aspect ratio of SWNT material used to prepare our composites was determined by AFM and careful image analysis in order to use it as an input parameter in the Nielsen model. We obtained good agreement between our experimental results and the predictions of the Nielsen model. Based on our analysis we concluded that higher aspect ratio of filler material was needed to achieve better improvement in the composites thermal conductivities. One should also take steps in order to improve the thermal contact between the SWNT network and the matrix material.
Solution deposition processes for the production of thin multi-element metal oxide films continue with great interest and varied success. Solution deposition via either sol-gel or MOD (Metal Organic Decomposition) methods are of interest due to the ability to produce a wide variety of compositional products at low capital investment cost. The sol-gel method generally uses hydrolytically sensitive metal alkoxides as the starting materials. Manipulation of the reagents and different hydrolysis rates for multi-element mixtures are issues. The MOD method utilizes large organic acid metal salts as the starting materials. In general, MOD solutions are more hydrolytically stable than the sol-gel solutions. MOD process challenges include large quantities of carbon to be decomposed during the firing, shrinkage and stress of the thin films, variable chemistry in synthesis of the starting materials (especially when the starting materials for the MOD precursors are metal alkoxides), and long reaction times for the synthesis. For both the sol-gel and MOD precursors, toxic and volatile organic chemical (VOC's) solvents are employed as the vehicle.
This paper will review the chemistry-related issues to production of consistent highquality metal oxide films via the MOD process. The fabrication of thin BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 (BST) films is described. A new class of MOD precursor has been implemented using polyether acids as the organic vehicle. These new materials are both water stable and water soluble. High quality BST thin films made from these precursors are described and capacitors made from these films are compared to the aliphatic acid MOD materials. Improved capacitors using lower resistance electrodes and interconnects are described, as well as devices designed specifically for our specific application.
A comparative study of some tagging methods for the great scallop (Pecten maximus) is reported and intended to increase reliability and reduce costs associated with tagging. Tags were tested for ease of application, legibility, visibility and retention prior to a 17-month study of Pecten maximus in suspended (pearl net) culture. Of the six adhesives tested (standard epoxy resin, rapid epoxy resin, underwater epoxy resin, dental cement, cyanoacrylate fluid and cyanoacrylate gel), rapid epoxy resin and both cyanoacrylates were successful, bonding strongly and quickly to scallop shells. Of the three tag types used, Shellfish Tags (Hallprint) were favoured because they were simpler to apply, more visible, easier to read, and held more data than both Micromarkers (Brady) and engraved codes. In long-term trials 550 scallops were double tagged with Shellfish Tags using cyanoacrylate gel. Loss rates were 16% for tags on the umbo and 0·4% for tags positioned in grooves near to the shell margin. Loss rates did not increase over the 17-month period.
At the beginning of the century, the Constitution was amended to permit direct election of U.S. senators. We examine the shift to determine the extent to which an electoral reform can result in meaningful change. Variables are analyzed that tap the Senate's membership and responsiveness before and after direct election, and House data are employed to control for history effects. The results indicate that changing the mode of senatorial selection did indeed lead to alterations in the composition and sensitivity of the Senate, a finding that should encourage caution regarding the electoral reforms being advocated at the end of the century.
Amorphous diamond-like carbon (ADLC) coatings are deposited on cemented carbides, high speed steels (HSS) and other steels, using arc-ion plating. The paper describes both the problems and the potential of this process with its many influencing parameters. It also details a number of properties of hydrogen-free a-C films deposited at coating temperatures of 200°C; as an example, a tribological application is described.
The US House of Representatives underwent a series of reforms in the 1970s which, on paper, changed the institution in fundamental ways. Often, however, institutional inertia is able to transform important ‘paper’ changes into barely discernible actual changes. Have the reforms really led to alterations in the way Congress operates and the policies it produces? To provide a partial answer to this question, we single out one of the reforms – a change in the application of the seniority system in the selection of committee chairmen – and analyse it with an eye towards one hypothesized effect – alterations in the level of party support among key representatives. But by restricting our study in this manner, we are able to provide specific empirical facts which should be of considerable assistance in the important task of formulating more generalized conclusions about the ability of legislative reform to produce real change in the governing process.