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The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides remain an important and useful chemistry 60 yr after their first introduction. In this review, based on topics introduced at the Weed Science Society of America 2021 symposium titled “A History, Overview, and Plan of Action on PPO Inhibiting Herbicides,” we discuss the current state of PPO-inhibiting herbicides. Renewed interest in the PPO-inhibiting herbicides in recent years, due to increased use and increased cases of resistance, has led to refinements in knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of PPO inhibitors. Herein we discuss the importance of the two isoforms of PPO in plants, compile a current knowledge of target-site resistance mechanisms, examine non–target site resistance cases, and review crop selectivity mechanisms. Consistent and reproducible greenhouse screening and target-site mutation assays are necessary to effectively study and compare PPO-inhibitor resistance cases. To this end, we cover best practices in screening to accurately identify resistance ratios and properly interpret common screens for point mutations. The future of effective and sustainable PPO-inhibitor use relies on development of new chemistries that maintain activity on resistant biotypes and the promotion of responsible stewardship of PPO inhibitors both new and old. We present the biorational design of the new PPO inhibitor trifludimoxazin to highlight the future of PPO-inhibitor development and discuss the elements of sustainable weed control programs using PPO inhibitors, as well as how responsible stewardship can be incentivized. The sustained use of PPO inhibitors in future agriculture relies on the effective and timely communication from mode of action and resistance research to agronomists, Extension workers, and farmers.
Maternal protein restriction is often associated with structural and functional sequelae in offspring, particularly affecting growth and renal-cardiovascular function. However, there is little understanding as to whether hypertension and kidney disease occur because of a primary nephron deficit or whether controlling postnatal growth can result in normal renal-cardiovascular phenotypes. To investigate this, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a low-protein (LP, 8.4% protein) or normal-protein (NP, 19.4% protein) diet prior to mating and until offspring were weaned at postnatal day (PN) 21. Offspring were then fed a non ‘growth’ (4.6% fat) which ensured that catch-up growth did not occur. Offspring growth was determined by weight and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nephron number was determined at PN21 using the disector-fractionator method. Kidney function was measured at PN180 and PN360 using clearance methods. Blood pressure was measured at PN360 using radio-telemetry. Body weight was similar at PN1, but by PN21 LP offspring were 39% smaller than controls (Pdiet < 0.001). This difference was due to proportional changes in lean muscle, fat, and bone content. LP offspring remained smaller than NP offspring until PN360. In LP offspring, nephron number was 26% less in males and 17% less in females, than NP controls (Pdiet < 0.0004). Kidney function was similar across dietary groups and sexes at PN180 and PN360. Blood pressure was similar in LP and NP offspring at PN360. These findings suggest that remaining on a slow growth trajectory after exposure to a suboptimal intrauterine environment does not lead to the development of kidney dysfunction and hypertension.
We describe the association between job roles and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare personnel. A wide range of hazard ratios were observed across job roles. Medical assistants had higher hazard ratios than nurses, while attending physicians, food service workers, laboratory technicians, pharmacists, residents and fellows, and temporary workers had lower hazard ratios.
Variation exists in the timing of surgery for balanced complete atrioventricular septal defect repair. We sought to explore associations between timing of repair and resource utilisation and clinical outcomes in the first year of life.
In this retrospective single-centre cohort study, we included patients who underwent complete atrioventricular septal defect repair between 2005 and 2019. Patients with left or right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and major non-cardiac comorbidities (except trisomy 21) were excluded. The primary outcome was days alive and out of the hospital in the first year of life.
Included were 79 infants, divided into tertiles based on age at surgery (1st = 46 to 137 days, 2nd = 140 – 176 days, 3rd = 178 – 316 days). There were no significant differences among age tertiles for days alive and out of the hospital in the first year of life by univariable analysis (tertile 1, median 351 days; tertile 2, 348 days; tertile 3, 354 days; p = 0.22). No patients died. Fewer post-operative ICU days were used in the oldest tertile relative to the youngest, but days of mechanical ventilation and hospitalisation were similar. Clinical outcomes after repair and resource utilisation in the first year of life were similar for unplanned cardiac reinterventions, outpatient cardiology clinic visits, and weight-for-age z-score at 1 year.
Age at complete atrioventricular septal defect repair is not associated with important differences in clinical outcomes or resource utilisation in the first year of life.
Current dam discharge patterns in Noxon Rapids Reservoir reduce concentration and exposure times (CET) of herbicides used for aquatic plant management. Herbicide applications during periods of low dam discharge may increase herbicide CETs and improve efficacy. Applications of rhodamine WT dye were monitored under peak (736 to 765 m3 s−1) and minimum (1.4 to 2.8 m3 s−1) dam discharge patterns to quantify water-exchange processes. Whole-plot dye half-life under minimal discharge was 33 h, a 15-fold increase compared with the dye treatment during peak discharge. Triclopyr concentrations measured during minimum discharge within the treated plot ranged from 214 ± 25 to 1,243 ± 36 µg L−1 from 0 to 48 h after treatment (HAT), respectively. Endothall concentrations measured during minimum discharge in the same plot ranged from 164 ± 78 to 2,195 ± 1,043 µg L−1 from 0 to 48 HAT, respectively. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) occurrence in the treatment plot was 66%, 8%, and 14% during pretreatment, 5 wk after treatment (WAT), and 52 WAT, respectively. Myriophyllum spicatum occurrence in the nontreated plot was 68%, 71%, and 83% during pretreatment, 5 WAT, and 52 WAT, respectively. Curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) occurrence in the treatment plot was 29%, 0%, and 97% during pretreatment, 5 WAT, and 52 WAT, respectively. Potamogeton crispus increased from 24% to 83% at 0 WAT to 52 WAT, respectively, in the nontreated plot. Native species richness declined from 3.3 species per point to 2.1 in the treatment plot in the year of treatment but returned to pretreatment numbers by 52 WAT. Native species richness did not change during the study in the nontreated reference plot. Herbicide applications during periods of low flow can increase CETs and improve control, whereas applications during times of high-water flow would shorten CETs and could result in reduced treatment efficacy.
We describe COVID-19 cases among nonphysician healthcare personnel (HCP) by work location. The proportion of HCP with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was highest in the emergency department and lowest among those working remotely. COVID-19 and non–COVID-19 units had similar proportions of HCP with COVID-19 (13%). Cases decreased across all work locations following COVID-19 vaccination.
Background: Whether working on COVID-19 designated units put healthcare workers (HCWs) at higher risk of acquiring COVID-19 is not fully understood. We report trends of COVID-19 incidence among nonphysician HCWs and the association between the risk of acquiring COVID-19 and work location in the hospital. Methods: The University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics (UIHC) is an 811-bed, academic medical center serving as a referral center for Iowa. We retrospectively collected COVID-19–associated data for nonphysician HCWs from Employee Health Clinic between June 1st 2020 and July 31th 2021. The data we abstracted included age, sex, job title, working location, history of COVID-19, and date of positive COVID-19 test if they had a history of COVID-19. We excluded HCWs who did not have a designated working location and those who worked on multiple units during the same shift (eg, medicine resident, hospitalist, etc) to assess the association between COVID-19 infections and working location. Job titles were divided into the following 5 categories: (1) nurse, (2) medical assistant (MA), (3) technician, (4) clerk, and (5) others (eg patient access, billing office, etc). Working locations were divided into the following 6 categories: (1) emergency department (ED), (2) COVID-19 unit, (3) non–COVID-19 unit, (4) Clinic, (5) perioperative units, and (6) remote work. Results: We identified 6,971 HCWs with work locations recorded. During the study period, 758 HCWs (10.8%) reported being diagnosed with COVID-19. Of these 758 COVID-19 cases, 658 (86.8%) were diagnosed before vaccines became available. The location with the highest COVID-19 incidence was the ED (17%), followed by both COVID-19 and non–COVID-19 units (12.7%), clinics (11.0%), perioperative units (9.4%) and remote work stations (6.6%, p Conclusions: Strict and special infection control strategies may be needed for HCWs in the ED, especially where vaccine uptake is low. The administrative control of HCWs working remotely may be associated with a lower incidence of COVID-19. Given that the difference in COVID-19 incidence among HCWs by location was lower and comparable after the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, facilities should make COVID-19 vaccination mandatory as a condition of employment for all HCWs, especially in areas where the COVID-19 incidence is high.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We aimed to determine if GLP-1 receptor agonists exert beneficial effects on surrogate measures of cardiovascular function independently of weight loss. Our objective was to compare the outcomes between GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment versus a similar drug without cardiovascular benefit versus weight loss through diet alone. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We enrolled 88 individuals with obesity (BMI â‰¥ 30kg/m2) and pre-diabetes and randomized them in a 2:1:1 ratio to 14 weeks of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, or hypocaloric diet. Sitagliptin blocks degradation of endogenous GLP-1 but does not cause weight loss or lower adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Treatment was double-blinded and placebo-controlled for drug, and unblinded for diet. Primary endpoints were flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to assess endothelial vasodilatory function, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to assess endothelial fibrinolytic function. We used a general linear model for each outcome and included gender as a covariate for FMD. Baseline characteristics were similar. Mean age was 50, with 32% men and 13% black. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At 14 weeks, diet and liraglutide caused weight loss (diet -4.3 Â± 3.2 kg, P<0.01; liraglutide -2.7 Â± 3.2, P<0.01), while sitagliptin did not (-0.7 Â± 2.0, P=0.17). Diet did not improve FMD at 14 weeks compared to baseline (+0.9%, 95% CI [-1.5, 3.3], P=0.46). FMD tended to increase after liraglutide and sitagliptin but was not significant (liraglutide +1.2 [-0.3, 2.8], P=0.12; sitagliptin +1.6 [-0.6, 3.8], P=0.15). Given that liraglutide and sitagliptin work through the same GLP-1 pathway, we combined the liraglutide and sitagliptin groups for overall effect on FMD, which was significantly improved from baseline (+1.4 [0.1, 2.8], P=0.04). Diet and liraglutide improved PAI-1 at 14 weeks (diet -4.4U/mL, [-8.5, -0.2], P=0.04; liraglutide -3.4 [-6.0, -0.7], P=0.01), while sitagliptin did not (-1.4 [-5.1, 2.3], P=0.46). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Activation of the GLP-1 pathway by liraglutide or sitagliptin improves FMD independent of weight loss, while PAI-1 improvement is weight-loss dependent and is only seen after liraglutide or diet. Our study suggests the cardiovascular benefit of liraglutide may be due to combined improvements in endothelial vasodilatory and fibrinolytic function.
Studies of introduced subject matter in rock-art assemblages typically focus on themes of cross-cultural interaction, change and continuity, power and resistance. However, the economic frameworks guiding or shaping the production of an assemblage have often been overlooked. In this paper we use a case study involving a recently recorded assemblage of introduced subject matter from Marra Country in northern Australia's southwest Gulf of Carpentaria region to explore their production using a hybrid economy framework. This framework attempts to understand the nature of the forces that shape people's engagement with country and subsequently how it is being symbolically marked as adjustments to country occur through colonization. We argue that embedding these motifs into a hybrid economy context anchored in the pastoral industry allows for a more nuanced approach to cross-cultural interaction studies and adds another layer to the story of Aboriginal place-marking in colonial contexts. This paper aims to go beyond simply identifying motifs thought to represent introduced subject matter, and the cross-cultural framework(s) guiding their interpretation, and instead to direct attention to the complex network of relations that potentially underpin the production of such motifs.
To assess the training and the future workforce needs of paediatric cardiac critical care faculty.
REDCap surveys were sent May−August 2019 to medical directors and faculty at the 120 US centres participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Faculty and directors were asked about personal training pathway and planned employment changes. Directors were additionally asked for current faculty numbers, expected job openings, presence of training programmes, and numbers of trainees. Predictive modelling of the workforce was performed using respondents’ data. Patient volume was projected from US Census data and compared to projected provider availability.
Measurements and main results:
Sixty-six per cent (79/120) of directors and 62% (294/477) of contacted faculty responded. Most respondents had training that incorporated critical care medicine with the majority completing training beyond categorical fellowship. Younger respondents and those in dedicated cardiac ICUs were more significantly likely to have advanced training or dual fellowships in cardiology and critical care medicine. An estimated 49–63 faculty enter the workforce annually from various training pathways. Based on modelling, these faculty will likely fill current and projected open positions over the next 5 years.
Paediatric cardiac critical care training has evolved, such that the majority of faculty now have dual fellowship or advanced training. The projected number of incoming faculty will likely fill open positions within the next 5 years. Institutions with existing or anticipated training programmes should be cognisant of these data and prepare graduates for an increasingly competitive market.
To assess current demographics and duties of physicians as well as the structure of paediatric cardiac critical care in the United States.
REDCap surveys were sent by email from May till August 2019 to medical directors (“directors”) of critical care units at the 120 United States centres submitting data to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database and to associated faculty from centres that provided email lists. Faculty and directors were asked about personal attributes and clinical duties. Directors were additionally asked about unit structure.
Measurements and main results:
Responses were received from 66% (79/120) of directors and 62% (294/477) of contacted faculty. Seventy-six percent of directors and 54% of faculty were male, however, faculty <40 years old were predominantly women. The majority of both groups were white. Median bed count (n = 20) was similar in ICUs and multi-disciplinary paediatric ICUs. The median service expectation for one clinical full-time equivalent was 14 weeks of clinical service (interquartile range 12, 16), with the majority of programmes (86%) providing in-house attending night coverage. Work hours were high during service and non-service weeks with both directors (37%) and faculty (45%).
Racial and ethnic diversity is markedly deficient in the paediatric cardiac critical care workforce. Although the majority of faculty are male, females make up the majority of the workforce younger than 40 years old. Work hours across all age groups and unit types are high both on- and off-service, with most units providing attending in-house night coverage.
Seed retention, and ultimately seed shatter, are extremely important for the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) and are likely influenced by various agroecological and environmental factors. Field studies investigated seed-shattering phenology of 22 weed species across three soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-producing regions in the United States. We further evaluated the potential drivers of seed shatter in terms of weather conditions, growing degree days, and plant biomass. Based on the results, weather conditions had no consistent impact on weed seed shatter. However, there was a positive correlation between individual weed plant biomass and delayed weed seed–shattering rates during harvest. This work demonstrates that HWSC can potentially reduce weed seedbank inputs of plants that have escaped early-season management practices and retained seed through harvest. However, smaller individuals of plants within the same population that shatter seed before harvest pose a risk of escaping early-season management and HWSC.
Background: Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Previous guidelines issued by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommended targeting vancomycin serum trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L; however, troughs <15 mg/L are also associated with increased odds of renal toxicity. To minimize toxicity, recently updated ASHP/IDSA/PIDS vancomycin dosing guidelines recommend the use of an area under the vancomycin concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) pharmacodynamic index to measure vancomycin exposure, with an AUC/MIC ratio >400 correlating with clinical efficacy. However, data on vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in children are limited. Our institutional practice since January 2009 has been to use AUC/MIC, rather than serum trough concentrations, to guide vancomycin dosing. In this study, we describe clinical outcomes in vancomycin-treated children with invasive MRSA infections using this dosing method. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of children hospitalized with invasive MRSA infections between 2006 and 2019 at Rady Children’s Hospital in San Diego, California. Clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacologic data including the site of MRSA infection, clinical failure or cure, occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI), vancomycin MIC, vancomycin AUC, and serum trough concentrations were collected. Results: In total, 61 invasive MRSA cases were reviewed: 20 were admitted January 2016 through December 2008, and 41 were admitted January 2009 through June 2019 (Figure 1). Most patients did not have medical comorbidities. The most common types of infections were primary bacteremia (34%) and osteomyelitis (32%). Of 61 children, 50 (82%) had positive clinical outcomes regardless of vancomycin dosing method. Of 20 patients, 8 (40%) admitted prior to January 2009 developed AKI, compared with 5 (12%) of 41 patients admitted after January 2009. Conclusions: In our retrospective review, most patients had clinically successful outcomes regardless of which dosing strategy was used. We found higher rates of renal toxicity in patients who were admitted prior to 2009, with TDM based on measuring peak and trough concentrations, compared with those using AUC/MIC for TDM. Our findings suggest that AUC/MIC TDM for invasive MRSA infections may be associated with lower rates of renal toxicity.
Digital inclusion is becoming more important as many consumer products and engineered systems adopt increasingly digital interfaces. The designers of such services often assume that users have a certain level of digital interface competence, but this is not the case for many users. In this paper, we present a set of personas that could help designers to better understand and consider the range of digital expertise across the population. The personas are based on survey data from 338 people across England and Wales in 2019. The survey examined various factors that affect ability to use digital interfaces, including technology experience, attitudes towards technology and competence with basic interface operations. Twelve clusters were identified using K-means cluster analysis, and twelve personas were developed based on these. The personas help to bring to life the range of digital expertise and highlight people at risk of digital exclusion. In addition, the cluster sizes indicate the proportion of the population represented by each persona and thus the scale of potential digital exclusion.
The Neurodevelopmental and Psychological Outcomes Working Group of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative was formed in 2018 through support from an R13 grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with the goals of identifying knowledge gaps regarding the neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes of individuals with CHD and investigations needed to advance science, policy, clinical care, and patient/family outcomes. Accurate characterisation of neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes in children with CHD will drive improvements in patient and family outcomes through targeted intervention. Decades of research have produced a generalised perspective about neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes in this heterogeneous population. Future investigations need to shift towards improving methods, measurement, and analyses of outcomes to better inform early identification, prevention, and intervention. Improved definition of underlying developmental, neuropsychological, and social-emotional constructs is needed, with an emphasis on symptom networks and dimensions. Identification of clinically meaningful outcomes that are most important to key stakeholders, including patients, families, schools and providers, is essential, specifically how and which neurodevelopmental differences across the developmental trajectory impact stakeholders. A better understanding of the discontinuity and patterns of neurodevelopment across the lifespan is critical as well, with some areas being more impactful at some ages than others. Finally, the field needs to account for the impact of race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, cultural and linguistic diversity on our measurement, interpretation of data, and approach to intervention and how to improve generalisability to the larger worldwide population of patients and families living with CHD.