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Acculturation is the process of group and individual changes in culture and behaviour that result from intercultural contact. These changes have been taking place forever, and continue at an increasing pace as more and more peoples of different cultures move, meet and interact. Variations in the meanings of the concept, and some systematic conceptualisations of it are presented. This is followed by a survey of empirical work with indigenous, immigrant and ethnocultural peoples around the globe that employed both ethnographic (qualitative) and psychological (quantitative) methods. This wide-ranging research has been undertaken in a quest for possible general principles (or universals) of acculturation. This Element concludes with a short evaluation of the field of acculturation; its past, present and future.
In culturally diverse societies, one of the biggest questions on our minds is 'how shall we all live together?' Mutual Intercultural Relations offers an answer to this fundamental and topical issue. By exploring intercultural relationships between dominant/national and non-dominant/ethnic populations in seventeen societies around the world, the authors are each able to chart the respective views of those populations and to generate 'general' principles of intercultural relations. The research reported in this book is guided by three psychological hypotheses which are evaluated by empirical research: multiculturalism, contact and integration. It was also carried out comparatively in order to gain knowledge about intercultural relations that may be general and not limited to a few social and political contexts. Understanding these general principles will offer help in the development of public policies and programmes designed to improve the quality of intercultural relations in culturally diverse societies around the world.
Discovery of strongly-lensed gravitational wave (GW) sources will unveil binary compact objects at higher redshifts and lower intrinsic luminosities than is possible without lensing. Such systems will yield unprecedented constraints on the mass distribution in galaxy clusters, measurements of the polarization of GWs, tests of General Relativity, and constraints on the Hubble parameter. Excited by these prospects, and intrigued by the presence of so-called “heavy black holes” in the early detections by LIGO-Virgo, we commenced a search for strongly-lensed GWs and possible electromagnetic counterparts in the latter stages of the second LIGO observing run (O2). Here, we summarise our calculation of the detection rate of strongly-lensed GWs, describe our review of BBH detections from O1, outline our observing strategy in O2, summarize our follow-up observations of GW170814, and discuss the future prospects of detection.
The stable-isotopic signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) has been routinely used in temperate lake systems to investigate the biogeochemical dynamics of carbon. We studied seven perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, to ascertain how carbon cycling affects the δ13C of DIC in water columns of these systems. Unlike temperate lakes and, in fact, most polar lake systems, the permanent ice covers of these lakes eliminate physical mixing (turnover) and hence redistribution of DIC in the lakes, as well as minimize CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. These important and unique physical constraints have significant impact on carbon dynamics in the lakes, and important consequences for the δ13C distribution. The geochemistry in these lakes is influenced in varying amounts by landscape position, hydrologic input and their evolutionary history. Five of these lakes (both lobes of Lake Bonney, and Lakes Fryxell, Miers and Vanda) have surface water δ13C ratios of 0–4‰, Lake Hoare has more negative values, while Lake Joyce, the highest-elevation lake, has a much higher value (10.5‰). All of the lakes have upper- to mid-depth δ13C maxima reflecting biological uptake of 12C. Only four of the lakes (Lakes Vanda, Joyce, Hoare and Fryxell) have deep waters with negative values of δ13C, implying rigorous remineralization of 12C at depth. Lake Miers, the only lake that is not closed basin, has the smallest δ13C variation with depth, indicating that hydrologic exchange greatly influences the δ13C signal.