To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Walk or Run to Quit was a national program targeting smoking cessation through group-based running clinics. Increasing physical activity may facilitate smoking cessation as well as lead to additional health benefits beyond cessation.
To evaluate the impact of Walk or Run to Quit over 3 years.
Adult male and female participants (N = 745) looking to quit smoking took part in 156 running-based cessation clinics in 79 locations across Canada. Using a pre-post design, participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, running frequency and smoking at the beginning and end of the 10-week program and at 6-months follow-up. Carbon monoxide testing pre- and post- provided an objective indicator of smoking status and coach logs assessed implementation.
55.0% of program completers achieved 7-day point prevalence (intent-to-treat = 22.1%) and carbon monoxide significantly decreased from weeks 1 to 10 (P < 0.001). There was an increase in physical activity and running from baseline to end-of-program (P's<0.001). At 6-month follow-up, 28.9% of participants contacted self-reported prolonged 6-month abstinence (intent-to-treat = 11.4%) and 35.6% were still running regularly.
Although attrition was a concern, Walk or Run to Quit demonstrated potential as a scalable behaviour change intervention that targets both cessation and physical activity.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
Prenatal maternal depression and a multilocus genetic profile of two susceptibility genes implicated in the stress response were examined in an interaction model predicting negative emotionality in the first 3 years. In 179 mother–infant dyads from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment cohort, prenatal depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressions Scale) was assessed at 24 to 36 weeks. The multilocus genetic profile score consisted of the number of susceptibility alleles from the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR): no long-rs25531(A) (LA: short/short, short/long-rs25531(G) [LG], or LG/LG] vs. any LA) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (six to eight repeats vs. two to five repeats). Negative emotionality was extracted from the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire—Revised at 3 and 6 months and the Early Child Behavior Questionnaire at 18 and 36 months. Mixed and confirmatory regression analyses indicated that prenatal depression and the multilocus genetic profile interacted to predict negative emotionality from 3 to 36 months. The results were characterized by a differential susceptibility model at 3 and 6 months and by a diathesis–stress model at 36 months.
Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non–seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother–child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away behavior) and sensitivity predicted disorganized attachment in robust logistic regression models adjusted for social demographic covariates. Specifically, children in the midrange of birth weight were more likely to develop a disorganized attachment when exposed to less attentive maternal care. However, the association reversed with extreme birth weight (low and high). The DRD4 seven-repeat allele was associated with less disorganized attachment (protective), while non–seven-repeat children were more likely to be classified as disorganized attachment. The implications for understanding inconsistencies in the literature about which DRD4 genotype is the risk direction are also considered. Suggestions for intervention with families with infants at different levels of biological risk and caregiving risk are also discussed.
Our aim was to evaluate interrater reliability for the diagnosis of pediatric delirium by child psychiatrists.
Critically ill patients (N = 17), 0–21 years old, including 7 infants, 5 children with developmental delay, and 7 intubated children, were assessed for delirium using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual–IV (DSM–IV) (comparable to DSM–V) criteria. Delirium assessments were completed by two psychiatrists, each blinded to the other's diagnosis, and interrater reliability was measured using Cohen's κ coefficient along with its 95% confidence interval.
Interrater reliability for the psychiatric assessment was high (Cohen's κ = 0.94, CI [0.83, 1.00]). Delirium diagnosis showed excellent interrater reliability regardless of age, developmental delay, or intubation status (Cohen's κ range 0.81–1.00).
Significance of results:
In our study cohort, the psychiatric interview and exam, long considered the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of delirium, was highly reliable, even in extremely young, critically ill, and developmentally delayed children. A developmental approach to diagnosing delirium in this challenging population is recommended.
In the present study, fifteen growing pigs were used to determine the whole-body oxidation, retention efficiency (RE) and apparent conversion (AC) of α-linolenic acid (18 : 3n-3) to n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), including EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The pigs were fed a diet containing 10 % flaxseed for 30 d. Whole-body fatty acid composition was determined at initial (27·7 (se 1·9) kg), intermediate (day 15; 39·2 (se 1·4) kg) and final (45·7 (se 2·2) kg) body weight. On day 12, four pigs were fed 10 mg/kg of uniformly labelled 13C-18 : 3n-3 (single-bolus dose) to determine the oxidation of 18 : 3n-3. Expired
samples were collected for 24 h thereafter. The whole-body content of n-3 PUFA increased linearly (P< 0·0001) with time; however, the content of 22 : 6n-3 exhibited a quadratic response (P< 0·01) with a peak occurring at 15 h. As a proportion of intake, the RE of 18 : 3n-3 tended to reduce with time (P= 0·098). The AC of ingested 18 : 3n-3 to the sum of n-3 HUFA was reduced with time (P< 0·05; 12·2 v. 7·53 % for days 0–15 and days 15–30, respectively). The AC of 18 : 3n-3 to 20 : 5n-3 or 22 : 6n-3 was lower than that to 20 : 3n-3, both for days 0–15 (P< 0·05; 1·14 or 1·07 v. 7·06 %) and for days 15–30 (P< 0·05; 1·51 or 0·33 v. 4·29 %). The direct oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was 7·91 (se 0·98) % and was similar to the calculated disappearance of 18 : 3n-3 between days 0 and 30 (8·81 (se 5·24) %). The oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was much lower than that reported in other species. The AC of 18 : 3n-3 to n-3 HUFA was reduced over time and that to 20 : 3n-3 in the present study was much higher than that reported in other species and should be explored further.
The New South African Review revives the tradition of critical, analytical scholarship developed by the South African Review in the 1970s and 1980s. Accessible to a wide readership and drawing upon authors from well beyond academia, its objective is to be informative, discursive and, at times, downright provocative. It seeks to provide contemporary comment and engage with current controversies. The first volume in the series, 2010: Development or Decline? ranges widely across the implications of the international crisis for the economy, the threats to our fragile ecology of present economic strategies, through to the state of the ANC and the public service, issues around service delivery, migration, HIV-Aids, land reform, crime, the sexual behaviour of our youth, and much more. Posing the provocative question of whether South Africa is embarking upon a long-term decline, the volume simultaneously argues the potential for a society premised upon social equality, social coherence and sustainability. This collection will appeal to both national and international audiences interested in engaging with the multiple dilemmas and challenges facing contemporary South Africa