To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
COVID-19 has presented society with a public health threat greater than any in living memory, leaving us to question almost every aspect of our society. An ever increasing concern is how we protect the global population from mental illness and whether public mental health policies can achieve this. In this article I reflect on the history of mental health service development, and furthermore on how COVID-19 might impact on the delivery of public mental health strategies into the future.
Ashton Sinamai, Zimbabwean archaeologist who is currently an adjunct research fellow with the College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences at Flinders University, Australia,
John Schofield, Archaeology Department at the University of York
The predominant Western association of landscape with visual art shapes the way many people think about and experience the world –as subject/ object relationship, merely as ‘something seen’ (Rose 2006; Wylie 2006) and often with a focus on the iconic, the aesthetic and the rural. Landscape characterization takes a broader and deeper view of the landscape. It recognizes that contemporary landscape is deep and diverse in origin and is cultural, being ‘created in the present day by our own cultural and social attitudes’ (Fairclough 2008, 409). Characterization also recognizes landscape as ubiquitous: that landscape is heritage, and heritage is landscape. Landscape, therefore, is not the environment (Hogg 2015, 282), but rather a relationship (negative and positive) between people and their environment. The landscape is not just shaped by human behaviour, it also shapes it by contributing to the formation of local culture and identities (Devadoss 2017, 72). The complex interweaving of tangible forms (buildings, monuments, the physical manifestations of human interaction within the landscape) and the intangible representations of behaviour, including music and song, is encapsulated by the same landscape. It is our contention that these relationships are not yet fully appreciated, and that one element of the intangible heritage –folk music, which we regard as historic popular music, or folk music within a popular context, then and now –has a significant contribution to make towards readings and understandings of landscape. The boundaries between music categories are fluid, and folk music does not represent a lost legacy but a continuing and popular engagement with territory. The emotional connections of people and their landscape are clearly expressed through this form of popular music, with its arguably unique ability to capture and mentalize intimate associations through time (Chikowero 2015).
These related perspectives facilitate the recognition of tensions within the landscape, as well as its dynamic and creative nature, and provide the opportunity to read it through other senses (Basso 1996; Hogg 2015) –to smell or hear the landscape, to encounter it in multi-sensory and complex ways (Porteous 1996, 33–38). Psychologists have proven that music is a strong stimulus for all kinds of memory (Huron 2006; Szpunar et al. 2004; van Dijck 2006). Crucially, though, music also recognizes and represents local distinctiveness, evoking memory of place and sharpening the emotional reactions people have for a place and for the environment around it (Storey 2006, 80).
Mental health and the failings of the mental health services are in the spotlight as never before. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the often dire situation with regard to child and adolescent mental health. At the same time, there is a renewed interest in the scope for prevention of mental illness and distress, and in population approaches to mental well-being. It may come as a surprise to some that others have given such serious consideration to strategic approaches to public mental health as long ago as the 1950s. It appears that such consideration was squeezed out by the dominant concerns of serious and enduring mental illness and a prevailing biological view of psychiatry. The time is right to engage with this agenda in recognition of the importance of public mental health, not only for the individual and for families, but also for society as a whole and for the economy. The publication of a review of the subject by the Faculty of Public Health and the Mental Health Foundation is to be commended. Let us make sure it leads to action.
How is the association of the descent/ascent motif with the Johannine Son of Man to be explained if the gnosticism theory no longer holds? ἀναβέβηκεν (3.13) is usually taken to refer to Jesus' final ascension. But Odeberg saw that it refers to a tradition of heavenly ascent in Jesus' lifetime. Bühner argued rather for a double reference—to the ascent of a visionary seer involving a metamorphosis into a heavenly being and a final ascent at death. Yet he ignores the likelihood, sustained by Jarl Fossum and Morton Smith, that the transfiguration tradition was based on an authentic memory. In chs. 9 and 5 the evangelist recognizes that Jesus had been invested with the authority of the heavenly Son of Man. He sees the crucifixion as an exaltation (3.14), and follows a statement of Jesus' ascent, descent and exaltation by a full summary of God's loving gift to the world.
Ageing women may choose to drink soya milk to reduce menopausal symptoms. As fermentation enriches soya milk with isoflavone aglycones, its beneficial qualities may improve. To reduce osteoporotic risk, however, soya milk must be Ca enriched, and it is not known how fermentation affects Ca bioavailability. A randomised crossover pilot study was undertaken to compare the Ca absorption of fortified soya milk with that of fermented and fortified soya milk in twelve Australian osteopenic post-menopausal women. The fortified soya milk was inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 4962 and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. Ca absorption from soya milk samples was measured using a single isotope radiocalcium method. Participants had a mean age of 54·8 (sd 12·3) years, with mean BMI of 26·5 (sd 5·5) kg/m2 and subnormal to normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (mean 62·5 (sd 19·1) nmol/l). Participants consumed 185 kBq of 45Ca in 44 mg of Ca carrier. The mean fractional Ca absorption (α) from soya milk and fermented soya milk was 0·64 (sd 0·23) and 0·71 (sd 0·29), respectively, a difference not of statistical significance (P = 0·122). Although fermentation of soya milk may provide other health benefits, fermentation had little effect on acute Ca absorption.
Background: Late life depression is often accompanied by slowed information processing during neuropsychological testing, and this has been related to underlying cerebrovascular disease. We investigated whether changes in electrophysiological markers of information processing might share the same pathological correlates.
Methods: Differences in power spectra frequency, contingent negative variation (CNV), post-imperative negative variation (PINV), and auditory P300a amplitude and latency in 19 patients with DSM-IV major depression aged ≥ 60 years were compared with 25 recordings in age-matched healthy controls. Associations with total brain volume and degree of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were examined in those who had undergone additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients had more slow-wave delta (group difference: p = 0.024) and theta activity (p = 0.015) as well as alpha activity (p = 0.005) but no decrease in beta band frequency (p = 0.077). None of these changes related differently to brain volume or WMH in patients or controls. Patients further showed prolonged P300a latencies (p = 0.027), which were associated with decreased total brain volume in patients but not controls (interaction by group: p = 0.004). While there were no overall differences in PINV between both groups, patients showed a decrease in PINV magnitude with increasing WMH, a relation that was not seen in controls (interaction by group: p = 0.024).
Conclusion: Patients with late life depression show changes in several electrophysiological markers of cerebral arousal and information processing, some of which relate to brain atrophy and WMH on MRI.
The Lower Palaeolithic site at Elveden, Suffolk, was the subject of new excavations from 1995–1999. Excavations around the edge and in the centre of the former clay-pit revealed sediments infilling a lake basin that had formed in Lowestoft till, overlying Chalk, the till being attributed to the Anglian glaciation (MIS 12). The lake sediments contain pollen that can be assigned to pollen zones HoI and HoIIa of the early Hoxnian (MIS 11). Overlying grey clays contain ostracods, molluscs, vertebrates, and carbonate concretions. Together they are indicative of a fluvial environment in a temperate climate. AAR ratios (amino acid racemisation) on the molluscs also suggest correlation with MIS 11. Further indications of a fluvial context are indicated by thin spreads of lag gravel along opposite sides of the clay-pit, marking the edges of a channel. The gravel forms the raw material for the human industries which consist of handaxes, flake tools, flakes, and cores. Further artefacts are found in the overlying black clay, which is interpreted as a palaeosol that formed with the silting-up of the channel. The basin was further infilled with colluvial ‘brickearths’, which also contain artefacts that are probably derived from the underlying gravel. Further evidence of soil formation was identified in the ‘brickearth’. Coversands with periglacial involutions overlie the ‘brickearth’ at the top of the sequence. These probably formed in the last cold stage, the Devensian (MIS 5d-2).
Of all the writings of the Bible none is more obviously an integrated whole than the Gospel of John. The first-time reader lionized by reader-response critics is sure to find it, as David Friedrich Strauss famously did, a 'seamless garment'. Its themes (judgement, mission, revelation, truth) and symbols (light, water, bread, healing, life) are skilfully interwoven into the familiar gospel story of Jesus' brief career as a teacher and wonder-worker, with its dramatic ending of death and resurrection. In this, the fourth version of the story, the parts are more than usually representative of the whole. Besides the sustained self-allusiveness consequential upon the evangelist's interpenetrative technique, the reason for this is that once under way the story is dominated throughout by the powerful presence of Jesus, who keeps introducing fresh variations on the single theme of life-giving revelation. This is what justifies the synecdochic approach of the present chapter. In John 4 the Samaritan woman, passing from incredulity to belief, invites a similar response from the readers of the Gospel. Those acquainted with the whole Gospel know that the same invitation is issued on almost every page: any episode of comparable length could be used, as this one is here, to illustrate models of interpretation.
The Star Centre is a national astronomy and space science base which
facilitates public access to news and information
promotes public awareness, interest, enjoyment and understanding.
The Star Centre meets these twin aims by providing an information service which can be accessed in a variety of ways and by offering a menu of public observing events.
The concept of a national astronomy base developed as part of the Centre for Science Educations growing portfolio of initiatives in both the formal education sector and the wider umbrella of the Public Understanding of Science. In December 1996 the Star Centre was launched with the aid of a Royal Society COPUS development grant and matching funding from Sheffield Hallam University.
This article reinterprets the post-Suez British role in the Middle
comparison of the military interventions in Jordan in 1958 and Kuwait in
Moreover, it places
these operations in the broader context of the debate about British decline.
It is argued that in addition
to the familiar constraints on British action imposed by limited resources
international climate, the projection of power in the region proved to
great test of nerve for British
ministers and officials. Paradoxically, this proved to be true as much
of the successful interventions in
Jordan and Kuwait as of the earlier failure over Suez. Utilizing very
recently released documents from
British and American archives, the article aims to shed light on the
dynamics of decline at the
microcosmic level, in the belief that insights gleaned here may well be
of value in revising macrocosmic theories of the process.
The creation of the Baghdad Pact, a regional defence organization linking Britain to Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan, in 1955, has been surrounded by historiographical confusion. Much of this is explicable in terms of the impact of rapid international changes on long-term strategy, the importance of which has tended to be neglected by historians of the pact. So, one school of thought focuses on the American promotion of the ‘Northern Tier’ concept during the period 1953–4, and on the British preference for an organization based on her Suez Canal Zone Base in Egypt.1 Applyingthis concept to the year 1955, the Baghdad Pact can become ‘the United States’ final victory over Great Britain during the Cold War, a victory which the Suez Crisis of 1956 served to confirm.
There are two fundamental questions concerning the Prologue, one literary, the other historical. The literary question was raised by Bultmann in his seminal article for the Gunkel Festschrift of 1923: ‘Wie weit ist von dem prāexistenten Logos die Rede, von wo ab von dem in der Geschichte auf-tretenden, d.h. von Jesus?’ The commentators, remarks Bultmann, disxsxsagree on the answer to this question, and this disagreement has persisted. For Bultmann the main difficulty arises from the fact that although v. 14 offers the first explicit statement of the Incarnation, the Christian reader cannot but take vv. 10 f. as an allusion to the life of Jesus, and consequently also v. 5 (which is parallel to it) and probably v. 4 also. Bultmann's solution was to see the Prologue as a pre-Christian Gnostic hymn, stemming from Baptist circles and subsequently taken over by the evangelist and adapted to form the opening of the Gospel. There have been many different answers since.
An epidemic of suicide by burning in England and Wales occurred during the one-year period October 1978 to October 1979, following a widely publicized political suicide. For the 82 cases, death certificates were obtained and coroners' inquest reports sought. The victims were predominantly young single men or older married women; both groups had strong psychiatric histories; and there were no suicides which had political overtones, apart from the index case. Compared with suicides by this method in the past, a higher proportion of victims were born in the UK. It is proposed that a code of practice for the reporting of suicides by the media is required.