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Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.
To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days.
A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall.
Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia.
Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years).
Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na.
Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8–14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.
Fatigue cracking in polycrystalline NiTi was investigated using a multiscale experimental framework for average grain sizes (GS) from 10 to 1500 nm for the first time. Macroscopic fatigue crack growth rates, measured by optical digital image correlation, were connected to microscopic crack opening and closing displacements, measured by scanning electron microscope DIC (SEM-DIC) using a high-precision external SEM scan controller. Among all grain sizes, the 1500 nm GS sample exhibited the slowest crack growth rate at the macroscale, and the largest crack opening level (stress intensity at first crack opening) and minimum crack opening displacements at the microscale. Smaller GS samples (10, 18, 42, and 80 nm) exhibited nonmonotonic trends in their fatigue performance, yet the correlation was strong between macroscale and microscale behaviors for each GS. The samples that exhibited the fastest crack growth rates (42 and 80 nm GS) showed a small crack opening level and the largest crack opening displacements. The irregular trends in fatigue performance across the nanocrystalline GS samples were consistent with nonmonotonic values in the elastic modulus reported previously, both of which may be related to the presence of residual martensite only evident in the small GS samples (10 and 18 nm).
We analyse the displacement of one fluid by a second immiscible fluid through a narrow channel of finite length which connects two reservoirs. We assume that the channel width slowly decreases in the direction of flow, and that the fluids have different viscosity and density. We examine the stability of the interface and find that there are Saffman–Taylor and Rayleigh–Taylor type modes, which may dominate in the narrow and wide regions of the channel, respectively. The gradient of the pressure jump across the interface associated with the surface tension acts to stabilise the interface, and for intermediate channel widths, this effect may dominate the destabilisation associated with both the Rayleigh–Taylor and Saffman–Taylor instabilities, provided the rate of change of the channel width with distance along the channel is sufficient. We also note that the effect of the converging channel leads to instability of long-wavelength modes owing to the quasi-static acceleration of the flow through the cell: we consider cases in which this effect only occurs at much lower wavenumbers than the most unstable Saffman–Taylor and Rayleigh–Taylor modes. We show that there is a maximum wavenumber for instability, which varies with position in the channel. By integrating the growth rate of each wavenumber in time as the interface moves across the channel, we predict the mode which grows to the greatest amplitude as the interface traverses the channel.
A record of sedimentation from pro-glacial sandur deposits through pro-glacial lake deposits to final deposition of till is used to interpret changing environmental conditions, and depositional processes, during the development of the “Little Welsh Advance” in the Shrewsbury area, England. The relationship between lacustrine sediments and till establishes till deposition by flowage. However, the most important conclusions are derived from the deduction that lacustrine sediments were incorporated into the basal part of the ice sheet and transported across previously deposited end moraines. A discussion of this deduction, based on the findings of Weertman (1961), establishes that during the advancing phase the ice sheet was of the polar type. Final melting is thought to have occurred by both top-melt and under-melt as a result of climatic amelioration.
This study details the characterization of a glass sample exposed to hyperalkaline water and calcium-rich sediment for an extended time period (estimated as 2 - 70 years) at a lime (CaO) waste site in the UK. We introduce this site, known as Peak Dale, in reference to its use as a natural analogue for nuclear waste glass dissolution in the high pH environment of a cementitious engineered barrier of a geological disposal facility. In particular, a preliminary assessment of alteration layer chemistry and morphology is described and the initiation of a long-term durability assessment is outlined.
Drumlin forms are described from maps and air photographs of a part of the Athabasca Plains, northern Saskatchewan. Three major forms, spindle, parabolic and transverse asymmetrical are recognized. These forms, which may show superimposed minor elements, depart from classical descriptions of drumlins, but are similar to moulds of erosional marks created by separated fluid flows. Assemblages of drumlins also show characteristics similar to those of erosional marks. The form analogy between drumlins and moulds of erosional marks is carried to a conclusion that drumlins may be formed by the infilling of erosional marks created on the under-side of glaciers by separated, subglacial melt-water flows. Estimates of specific discharge are obtained by means of an expected range of Reynolds number. Geomorphological evidence is given for large-scale erosion by subglacial melt water. A discussion of the sedimentology, stratigraphy, and deformational structure of the interiors of drumlins shows that they may be explained by the erosional-mark hypothesis. This paper emphasizes the importance of melt water as a geomorphic agent and may have broad implications for ice-sheet dynamics and profiles, rates of deglaciation, and the occurrence of bedrock thrusting by ice.
Excavations at the Middle Pleistocene site of La Cotte de St Brelade, on the
island of Jersey in the English Channel, have revealed a long sequence of
occupation. The continued use of the site by Neanderthals throughout an
extended period of changing climate and environment reveals how, despite
changes in the types of behaviour recorded at the site, La Cotte emerged as
a persistent place in the memory and landscape of its early hominin
inhabitants. The site's status as a persistent place for these people
suggests a level of social and cognitive development permitting reference to
and knowledge of places distant in time and space as long ago as at least
Although the problem of herbicide resistance is not new, the widespread evolution of glyphosate resistance in weed species such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer), and kochia [Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.] raised awareness throughout the agricultural community of herbicide resistance as a problem. Glyphosate-resistant weeds resulted in the loss of a simple, single herbicide option to control a wide spectrum of weeds that gave efficacious and economical weed management in corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops engineered for tolerance to this herbicide and planted over widespread areas of the South and Midwest of the United States. Beyond these crops, glyphosate is used for vegetation management in other cropping systems and in noncrop areas across the United States, and resistance to this herbicide threatens its continued utility in all of these situations. This, combined with the development of multiple herbicide-resistant weeds and the lack of commercialization of herbicides with new mechanisms of action over the past years (Duke 2012), caused the weed science community to realize that stewardship of existing herbicide resources, extending their useful life as long as possible, is imperative. Further, while additional herbicide tolerance traits are being incorporated into crops, weed management in these crops will still be based upon using existing, old, herbicide chemistries.
This study offers the first systematic analysis of the impact of press-state relations, or media systems, on the HIV/AIDS news agenda in African news coverage. The premise is that media systems play a determining role in the degree to which journalists can independently advocate for social change when covering HIV/AIDS. Drawing on comparative research, four sub-Saharan countries were categorized into two media systems: Contained Democratic (South Africa, Nigeria) and Repressive Autocratic (Zimbabwe, Kenya). A sample of HIV/AIDS stories (n = 393) published from 2002–2007 in each country's leading Anglophone newspaper was content analyzed. Across all coverage, the topic of social costs was framed more for the responsibility borne by nongovernmental agents than governmental agents. In Contained Democratic media systems, however, story emphasis shifted toward government agents taking responsibility for addressing the social costs of HIV/AIDS. Prevention campaigns were framed more as progress than decline across all newspapers; however, campaigns were reported as being more efficacious in Contained Democratic systems than in Repressive Autocratic systems. No impact of media system on framing of medical developments was found. Results show the value of comparative analysis in understanding the agenda-setting process: with greater emphasis on positive efficacy and government initiative, the news agenda in Contained Democratic media systems can facilitate stronger positive societal-level responses than the news agenda in Repressive Autocratic media systems.
Advanced machine learning techniques like Gaussian process regression and multi-task learning are novel in the area of wine price prediction; previous research in this area being restricted to parametric linear regression models when predicting wine prices. Using historical price data of the 100 wines in the Liv-Ex 100 index, the main contributions of this paper to the field are, firstly, a clustering of the wines into two distinct clusters based on autocorrelation. Secondly, an implementation of Gaussian process regression on these wines with predictive accuracy surpassing both the trivial and simple ARMA and GARCH time series prediction benchmarks. Lastly, an implementation of an algorithm which performs multi-task feature learning with kernels on the wine returns as an extension to our optimal Gaussian process regression model. Using the optimal covariance kernel from Gaussian process regression, we achieve predictive results which are comparable to that of Gaussian process regression. Altogether, our research suggests that there is potential in using advanced machine learning techniques in wine price prediction. (JEL Classifications: C6, G12)
We analyzed the recent (< 25 yr) spread in New Hampshire, USA, of the exotic tree Kalopanax septemlobus, native to Asia. The invasion was likely initiated by a single tree planted ca. 1972. Our objective was to assess the viability of the invasion, especially in light of the small propagule size. We tallied, mapped, aged, and measured the height and growth of K. septemlobus individuals at two sites, the University of New Hampshire campus (UC) and Thompson Farm (TF), both in Durham. We found over 3,800 plants at UC and 270 at TF in < 120 ha (296 ac) total area. Plant age ranged from 0 to 22 yr, and UC plants were as far as 775 m (2,543 ft) from the purported parent tree. Annual height growth was comparable to midtolerant native trees. Plants occurred in both open and forested habitats, and the mean level of photosynthetically active radiation incident on understory plants was 4 to 6% of full sun. The large population size, shade tolerance, rapid height growth, and ability to sprout from damaged stems suggest potential for K. septemlobus to invade and persist in forests, the most common natural ecosystem in the northeastern United States. We further suggest that small propagule size, likely a single tree, has not prevented K. septemlobus from initiating a spatially extensive and vigorous population. Kalopanax septemlobus has been planted as an ornamental in the northeastern United States, and prevention of region-wide invasion might depend on removal of these trees, even when they occur as single individuals.
The author of this paper had formerly made experiments on the growth of the salmon fry, by procuring spawn from the river bed where it had been deposited by the salmon. Not considering these experiments, however, as entirely unobjectionable, he procured two fishes from the river Nith in the act of spawning; and having expressed the ova of the female in a convenient place, the milt of the male fish was made to impregnate them as nearly as possible in imitation of the natural process. The ova were then placed in ponds prepared for the purpose, and so arranged as to exclude all chances of error as to the species, or the nature of the progeny. The ponds were two in number;—one twenty-five by eighteen feet,—the other fifty by thirty feet, and two feet deep. The bottom was thickly imbedded with gravel, and a small stream of springwater entered the ponds at the upper corner, and escaped by openings at the other end.
The author has here pursued the same course of experimental enquiry regarding the sea-trout, as that formerly followed in relation to the salmon. Having obtained impregnated ova, from a pair of spawning fish, he conveyed these ova to his experimental ponds. This was on 1st November 1839, and the young were excluded from the egg in 75 days. They resembled salmon of the same age, but were somewhat smaller and paler. They took two years to grow about seven inches, and the majority were then converted into smolts. But about one-fourth did not assume the silvery lustre; and this peculiarity, Mr Shaw thinks, distinguishes a like proportion even in the rivers.