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Among nursing home outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ≥3 breakthrough infections when the predominant severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant circulating was the SARS-CoV-2 δ (delta) variant, fully vaccinated residents were 28% less likely to be infected than were unvaccinated residents. Once infected, they had approximately half the risk for all-cause hospitalization and all-cause death compared with unvaccinated infected residents.
One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused substantial changes to healthcare delivery and antibiotic prescribing beginning in March 2020. To assess pandemic impact on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates, we described patients and trends in facility-level incidence, testing rates, and percent positivity during 2019–2020 in a large cohort of US hospitals.
We estimated and compared rates of community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) per 10,000 discharges, hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) per 10,000 patient days, and C. difficile testing rates per 10,000 discharges in 2019 and 2020. We calculated percent positivity as the number of inpatients diagnosed with CDI over the total number of discharges with a test for C. difficile. We used an interrupted time series (ITS) design with negative binomial and logistic regression models to describe level and trend changes in rates and percent positivity before and after March 2020.
In pairwise comparisons, overall CO-CDI rates decreased from 20.0 to 15.8 between 2019 and 2020 (P < .0001). HO-CDI rates did not change. Using ITS, we detected decreasing monthly trends in CO-CDI (−1% per month, P = .0036) and HO-CDI incidence (−1% per month, P < .0001) during the baseline period, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic declaration. We detected no change in monthly trends for CO-CDI or HO-CDI incidence or percent positivity after March 2020 compared with the baseline period.
While there was a slight downward trajectory in CDI trends prior to March 2020, no significant change in CDI trends occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic despite changes in infection control practices, antibiotic use, and healthcare delivery.
Background: Previously, we reported decreasing postadmission urine-culture rates in hospitalized patients between 2012 and 2017, indicating a possible decrease in hospital-onset urinary tract infections or changes in diagnostic practices in acute-care hospitals (ACHs). In this study, we re-evaluated the trends using more recent data from 2017–2020 to assess whether new trends in hospital urine-culturing practices had emerged. Method: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of monthly urine-culture rates using microbiology data from 355 ACHs participating in the Premier Healthcare Database in 2017–2020. All cultures from the urinary tract collected on or before day 3 were defined as admission urine cultures and those collected on day 4 or later were defined as postadmission urine cultures. We included discharges from months where a hospital reported at least 1 urine culture with microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results. Annual estimates of rates of admission culture and postadmission urine-culture rates were assessed using general estimating equation models with a negative binomial distribution accounting for hospital-level clustering and adjusting for hospital bed size, teaching status, urban–rural designation, discharge month, and census division. Estimated rate for each year (2018, 2019, and 2020) was compared to previous year’s estimated rate using rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) generated through the multivariable GEE models. Results: From 2017 to 2020, we included 8.7 million discharges and 1,943,540 urine cultures, of which 299,013 (15.4%) were postadmission urine cultures. In 2017–2020, unadjusted admission culture rates were 20.0, 19.6, 17.9, and 18.2 per 100 discharges respectively; similarly, unadjusted postadmission urine-culture rates were 8.6, 7.8, 7.0, and 7.5 per 1,000 patient days. In the multivariable analysis, adjusting for hospital characteristics, no significant changes in admission urine-culture rates were detected during 2017–2019; however, in 2020, admission urine-culture rates increased 6% compared to 2019 (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.09) (Fig. 1). Postadmission urine-culture rates decreased 4% in 2018 compared to 2017 (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.91–0.99) and 8% in 2019 compared to 2018 (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.96). In 2020, postadmission urine-culture rates increased 10% compared to 2019 (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06–1.14) (Fig. 2). Factors significantly associated with postadmission urine-culture rates included discharge month and hospital bed size. For admission urine cultures, discharge month was the only significant factor. Conclusions: Between 2017–2019, postadmission urine-culture rates continued a decreasing trend, while admission culture rates remained unchanged. However, in 2020 both admission and postadmission urine culture rates increased significantly in comparison to 2019.
Previously reported associations between hospital-level antibiotic use and hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) were reexamined using 2012–2018 data from a new cohort of US acute-care hospitals. This analysis revealed significant positive associations between total, third-generation, and fourth-generation cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone, carbapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam use and HO-CDI rates, confirming previous findings.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
Background: Studies on the effectiveness of hospital-based interventions often measure hospital-onset infections as the outcome of interest. However, hospital-associated infections may manifest after patient discharge (classified as hospital-associated community-onset, HACO), and the epidemiology may vary by antibiotic resistance (AR) profile. We examined the epidemiology and trends of HACO infections of AR and non–antibiotic-resistant (non-AR) bacteria. Methods: We included clinical community-onset (CO) cultures (obtained sooner than or on day 3 of hospitalization) yielding the bacterial species of interest among hospitalized patients in 260 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database from 2012 to 2017. HACO infections were defined as CO cultures in a patient who had a previous hospitalization in the same hospital within 30 days. We examined methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus spp (VRE), carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Klebsiella spp, and Enterobacter spp) (CRE), extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance suggestive of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem resistance among Acinetobacter spp (CRAsp), and carbapenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA). We described the proportion of CO infections that were HACO, the proportion of HACO infections from sterile sites, overall HACO rates, and annual trends for sensitive and resistant phenotypes. Generalized estimating equation regression models that accounted for hospital-level clustering were used to estimate annual trends controlling for hospital characteristics and month of discharge. Results: The rate of HACO infections by pathogen ranged from 0.78 to 38.76 per 10,000 hospitalizations; 7%–34% were sterile site infections (Table 1). For each bacterial pathogen, a significantly higher proportion of AR CO infections had a previous hospitalization compared to non-AR CO infections (all χ2, P < .05). The annual trends for AR and non-AR HACO infections between 2012 and 2017 were significantly decreasing for most pathogens, except ESBL HACO infections. Conclusions: Even when using a definition limited to readmission to the same hospital, HACO infections occur commonly with differing rates by pathogen and antibiotic resistance profile. Although these rates are decreasing for most of the pathogens studied, improving surveillance and identifying prevention strategies for these infections are necessary to further reduce the burden of hospital-associated infections.
Background: In recent years, the historic declines in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States have slowed. We examined trends in the incidence of community-onset (CO) MRSA BSIs among hospitalized persons with and without substance-use diagnoses. Methods: Using data from >200 US hospitals reporting to the Premier Healthcare Database (PHD) during 2012–2017, we conducted a retrospective study among hospitalized persons aged ≥18 years. MRSA BSIs with substance use were defined as hospitalizations having both a blood culture positive for MRSA and at least 1 International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) or ICD-10-CM diagnostic code for substance use including opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, or other substances (excluding cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine). MRSA BSIs were considered community onset when a positive blood culture was collected within 3 days of admission. We assessed annual trends and described characteristics of CO MRSA BSI hospitalizations, stratified by substance use. Results: Of 20,049 MRSA BSIs from 2012 to 2017, 17,634 (88%) were CO. Overall, MRSA BSI incidence decreased 7%, from 178.5 to 166.2 per 100,000 hospitalizations during the study period; However, CO MRSA BSI rates remained stable (152.7 to 149.9 per 100,000 hospitalizations). Among CO MRSA BSIs, 1,838 (10%) were BSIs with substance-use diagnoses; the incidence of CO MRSA BSIs with substance use increased 236% (from 8.2 to 27.6 per 100,000 hospitalizations) and represented a greater proportion of the CO MRSA rate over the study period (Fig. 1). The incidence of CO MRSA BSIs without substance use decreased 15% (from 144.5 to 122.4 per 100,000 hospitalizations). Patients with CO MRSA BSIs with substance use were younger (median, 40 vs 65 years), more likely to be female (50% vs 40%), white (79% vs 69%), and to leave against medical advice (15% vs 1%). Among patients not leaving against medical advice, CO BSI patients with substance-use diagnoses had longer lengths of stay (median, 11 vs 9 days), lower in-hospital mortality (9% vs 14%), and higher hospitalization costs (median, $22,912 vs $17,468) compared to patients without substance-use diagnoses. Conclusions: Although the overall CO MRSA BSI rate remained unchanged from 2012 to 2017, infections with substance use diagnoses increased >3-fold, and infections without substance use diagnoses decreased. These data suggest that the emergence of MRSA associated with substance-use diagnoses threatens potential progress in reducing the incidence of CO MRSA infections. Additional strategies may be needed to prevent MRSA BSI in patients with substance-use diagnoses, and to maintain national progress in the reduction of MRSA infections overall.
Background: Successful containment of regional outbreaks of emerging multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) relies on early outbreak detection. However, deploying regional containment is resource intensive; understanding the distribution of different types of outbreaks might aid in further classifying types of responses. Objective: We used a stochastic model of disease transmission in a region where healthcare facilities are linked by patient sharing to explore optimal strategies for early outbreak detection. Methods: We simulated the introduction and spread of Candida auris in a region using a lumped-parameter stochastic adaptation of a previously described deterministic model (Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 28. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz248). Stochasticity was incorporated to capture early-stage behavior of outbreaks with greater accuracy than was possible with a deterministic model. The model includes the real patient sharing network among healthcare facilities in an exemplary US state, using hospital claims data and the minimum data set from the CMS for 2015. Disease progression rates for C. auris were estimated from surveillance data and the literature. Each simulated outbreak was initiated with an importation to a Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care hospital referral region. To estimate the potential burden, we quantified the “facility-time” period during which infectious patients presented a risk of subsequent transmission within each healthcare facility. Results: Of the 28,000 simulated outbreaks initiated with an importation to the community, 2,534 resulted in patients entering the healthcare facility network. Among those, 2,480 (98%) initiated a short outbreak that died out or quickly attenuated within 2 years without additional intervention. In the simulations, if containment responses were initiated for each of those short outbreaks, facility time at risk decreased by only 3%. If containment responses were initiated for the 54 (2%) outbreaks lasting 2 years or longer, facility time at risk decreased by 79%. Sentinel surveillance through point-prevalence surveys (PPSs) at the 23 skilled-nursing facilities caring for ventilated patients (vSNF) in the network detected 50 (93%) of the 54 longer outbreaks (median, 235 days to detection). Quarterly PPSs at the 23 largest acute-care hospitals (ie, most discharges) detected 48 longer outbreaks (89%), but the time to detection was longer (median, 716 days to detection). Quarterly PPSs also identified 76 short-term outbreaks (in comparison to only 14 via vSNF PPS) that self-terminated without intervention. Conclusions: A vSNF-based sentinel surveillance system likely provides better information for guiding regional intervention for the containment of emerging MDROs than a similarly sized acute-care hospital–based system.
Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
Background: Microbiology data are utilized to quantify epidemiology and trends in pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and bloodstream infections. Understanding variability and trends in rates of hospital-level blood culture utilization may be important for interpreting these findings. Methods: We used clinical microbiology results and discharge data to identify monthly blood culture rates from US hospitals participating in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2012–2017. We included all discharges from months where a hospital reported at least 1 blood culture with microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility results. Blood cultures drawn on or before day 3 were defined as admission cultures (ACs); blood cultures collected after day 3 were defined as a postadmission cultures (PACs). The AC rate was defined as the proportion of all hospitalizations with an AC. The PAC rate was defined as the number of days with a PAC among all patient days. Generalized estimating equation regression models that accounted for hospital-level clustering with an exchangeable correlation matrix were used to measure associations of monthly rates with hospital bed size, teaching status, urban–rural designation, region, month, and year. The AC rates were modeled using logistic regression, and the PAC rates were modeled using a Poisson distribution. Results: We included 11.7 million hospitalizations from 259 hospitals, accounting for nearly 52 million patient days. The median annual hospital-level AC rate was 27.1%, with interhospital variation ranging from 21.1% (quartile 1) to 35.2% (quartile 3) (Fig. 1). Multivariable models revealed no significant trends over time (P = .74), but statistically significant associations between AC rates with month (P < .001) and region (P = .003), associations with teaching status (P = .063), and urban-rural designation (P = .083) approached statistical significance. There was no association with bed size (P = .38). The median annual hospital-level PAC rate was 11.1 per 1,000 patient days, and interhospital variability ranged from 7.6 (quartile 1) to 15.2 (quartile 3) (Fig. 2). Multivariable models of PAC rates showed no significant trends over time (P = .12). We found associations between PAC rates with month (P = .016), bed size (P = .030), and teaching status (P = .040). PAC rates were not associated with urban–rural designation (P = .52) or region (P = .29). Conclusions: Blood culture utilization rates in this large cohort of hospitals were unchanged between 2012 and 2017, though substantial interhospital variability was detected. Although both AC and PAC rates vary by time of year and potentially by teaching status, AC rates vary by geographic characteristics whereas PAC rates vary by bed size. These factors are important to consider when comparing rates of bloodstream infections by hospital.
Background: The Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP) is a pay-for-performance Medicare program that promotes reducing patient harm, particularly healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We examined the association between infection-control–related activities and the number of penalties a hospital received between fiscal years 2015 and 2018. Methods: We used logistic regression with ordered categories to assess infection control resource use and the number of penalties, an ordered categorical dependent variable with 5 categories ranging from 0 to 4, as of 2018. Data sources included National Healthcare Safety Network, American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Medicare Impact and Cost Report files, and Data.Medicare.gov. We excluded hospitals lacking data to calculate any HACRP score or component score for HAI and hospitals missing observations for model variables (301 hospitals). We assessed the following model variables: teaching hospital status, infection preventionists (IP) per 1,000 beds, surveillance hours per week per bed, other infection control activities per week per bed, nurse-to-bed ratio, housekeeping expenditure per 10,000 beds, nursing position vacancies per bed, bed size, electronic health record (EHR) implementation, number of skilled nursing beds, rural or urban location, and Medicare patient case-mix (cmi_quartiles). Results: In our model, negative logit model point estimates indicated that increased values of the variable are associated with a lower odds of having a higher number of penalties. The final data set consisted of 3,004 US hospitals. Lower penalties were significantly associated with higher IP-to-bed ratio. Although the point estimates were <1, an association between lower penalties and higher nurse-to-bed ratios or electronic health records was not demonstrated (Table 1). Conclusions: Our results suggest that after controlling for selected hospital structural factors, incremental resources related to infection control have a protective association with HCARP penalties.
To compare risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery between women covered by Medicaid and private health insurance.
Cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid or private insurance and reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and state inpatient discharge databases by hospitals in California (2011–2013).
Deliveries reported to NHSN and state inpatient discharge databases were linked to identify SSIs in the 30 days following cesarean delivery, primary payer, and patient and procedure characteristics. Additional hospital-level characteristics were obtained from public databases. Relative risk of SSI by primary payer primary payer was assessed using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics, accounting for facility-level clustering.
Of 291,757 cesarean deliveries included, 48% were covered by Medicaid. SSIs were detected following 1,055 deliveries covered by Medicaid (0.75%) and 955 deliveries covered by private insurance (0.63%) (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.3; P < .0001). The adjusted odds of SSI following cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .0001) times the odds of those covered by private insurance.
In this, the largest and only multicenter study to investigate SSI risk following cesarean delivery by primary payer, Medicaid-insured women had a higher risk of infection than privately insured women. These findings suggest the need to evaluate and better characterize the quality of maternal healthcare for and needs of women covered by Medicaid to inform targeted infection prevention and policy.
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) on mortality following infection, regardless of patient location.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with an inpatient admission in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system between October 1, 2007, and November 30, 2010. We constructed multivariate log-binomial regressions to assess the impact of a positive culture on mortality in the 30- and 90-day periods following the first positive culture, using a propensity-score–matched subsample.
Patients identified with positive cultures due to MDR Acinetobacter (n=218), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1,026), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (n=3,498) were propensity-score matched to 14,591 patients without positive cultures due to these organisms. In addition, 3,471 patients with positive cultures due to MRSA were propensity-score matched to 12,499 patients without positive MRSA cultures. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria were associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality both for invasive (RR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.85–2.92) and noninvasive cultures (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22–1.44) during the 30-day period. Similarly, patients with MRSA HAIs (RR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.39–3.21) and colonizations (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22–1.50) had an increased risk of death at 30 days.
We found that HAIs due to gram-negative bacteria and MRSA conferred significantly elevated 30- and 90-day risks of mortality. This finding held true both for invasive cultures, which are likely to be true infections, and noninvasive infections, which are possibly colonizations.
Among dialysis facilities participating in a bloodstream infection (BSI) prevention collaborative, access-related BSI incidence rate improvements observed immediately following implementation of a bundle of BSI prevention interventions were sustained for up to 4 years. Overall, BSI incidence remained unchanged from baseline in the current analysis.
To determine whether central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) increase the likelihood of readmission.
Retrospective matched cohort study for the years 2008–2009.
Acute care hospitals.
Medicare recipients. CLABSI and readmission status were determined by linking National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance data to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Medical Provider and Analysis Review in 8 states. Frequency matching was used on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code category and intensive care unit status.
We compared the rate of readmission among patients with and without CLABSI during an index hospitalization. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to assess rate of readmission (the first hospitalization within 30 days after index discharge). Multivariate models included the following covariates: race, sex, length of index hospitalization stay, central line procedure code, Gagne comorbidity score, and individual chronic conditions.
Of the 8,097 patients, 2,260 were readmitted within 30 days (27.9%). The rate of first readmission was 7.1 events/person-year for CLABSI patients and 4.3 events/person-year for non-CLABSI patients (P<.001). The final model revealed a small but significant increase in the rate of 30-day readmissions for patients with a CLABSI compared with similar non-CLABSI patients. In the first readmission for CLABSI patients, we also observed an increase in diagnostic categories consistent with CLABSI, including septicemia and complications of a device.
Our analysis found a statistically significant association between CLABSI status and readmission, suggesting that CLABSI may have adverse health impact that extends beyond hospital discharge.
To determine the potential epidemiologic and economic value of the implementation of a multifaceted Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) control program at US acute care hospitals
Markov model with a 5-year time horizon
Patients whose data were used in our simulations were limited to hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old.
CDI is an important public health problem with substantial associated morbidity, mortality, and cost. Multifaceted national prevention efforts in the United Kingdom, including antimicrobial stewardship, patient isolation, hand hygiene, environmental cleaning and disinfection, and audit, resulted in a 59% reduction in CDI cases reported from 2008 to 2012.
Our analysis was conducted from the federal perspective. The intervention we modeled included the following components: antimicrobial stewardship utilizing the Antimicrobial Use and Resistance module of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), use of contact precautions, and enhanced environmental cleaning. We parameterized our model using data from CDC surveillance systems, the AHRQ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, and literature reviews. To address uncertainty in our parameter estimates, we conducted sensitivity analyses for intervention effectiveness and cost, expenditures by other federal partners, and discount rate. Each simulation represented a cohort of 1,000 hospitalized patients over 1,000 trials.
In our base case scenario with 50% intervention effectiveness, we estimated that 509,000 CDI cases and 82,000 CDI-attributable deaths would be prevented over a 5-year time horizon. Nationally, the cost savings across all hospitalizations would be $2.5 billion (95% credible interval: $1.2 billion to $4.0 billion).
The potential benefits of a multifaceted national CDI prevention program are sizeable from the federal perspective.
To determine rates of blood culture contamination comparing 3 strategies to prevent intensive care unit (ICU) infections: screening and isolation, targeted decolonization, and universal decolonization.
Pragmatic cluster-randomized trial.
Forty-three hospitals with 74 ICUs; 42 of 43 were community hospitals.
Patients admitted to adult ICUs from July 1, 2009, to September 30, 2011.
After a 6-month baseline period, hospitals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 strategies, with all participating adult ICUs in a given hospital assigned to the same strategy. Arm 1 implemented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares screening and isolation, arm 2 targeted decolonization (screening, isolation, and decolonization of MRSA carriers), and arm 3 conducted no screening but universal decolonization of all patients with mupirocin and chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing. Blood culture contamination rates in the intervention period were compared to the baseline period across all 3 arms.
During the 6-month baseline period, 7,926 blood cultures were collected from 3,399 unique patients: 1,099 sets in arm 1, 928 in arm 2, and 1,372 in arm 3. During the 18-month intervention period, 22,761 blood cultures were collected from 9,878 unique patients: 3,055 sets in arm 1, 3,213 in arm 2, and 3,610 in arm 3. Among all individual draws, for arms 1,2, and 3, the contamination rates were 4.1%, 3.9%, and 3.8% for the baseline period and 3.3%, 3.2%, and 2.4% for the intervention period, respectively. When we evaluated sets of blood cultures rather than individual draws, the contamination rate in arm 1 (screening and isolation) was 9.8% (N = 108 sets) in the baseline period and 7.5% (N = 228) in the intervention period. For arm 2 (targeted decolonization), the baseline rate was 8.4% (N = 78) compared to 7.5% (N = 241) in the intervention period. Arm 3 (universal decolonization) had the greatest decrease in contamination rate, with a decrease from 8.7% (N = 119) contaminated blood cultures during the baseline period to 5.1% (N = 184) during the intervention period. Logistic regression models demonstrated a significant difference across the arms when comparing the reduction in contamination between baseline and intervention periods in both unadjusted (P = .02) and adjusted (P = .02) analyses. Arm 3 resulted in the greatest reduction in blood culture contamination rates, with an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.044-0.71) and an adjusted OR of 0.55 (95% CI, 0.43-0.71).
In this large cluster-randomized trial, we demonstrated that universal decolonization with CHG bathing resulted in a significant reduction in blood culture contamination.
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).