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At least from the twelfth century on, Western monastic life was conceived as inseparable from rules, and especially the Rule of St. Benedict (RB). The RB, which refers to itself as “law” (RB 58.10, 15), contains both penalties for those violating this “law” and procedural norms, and in this sense can be seen as a law book for monastic communities. In the high Middle Ages, monastic orders perceived their own consuetudines as legal norms, and they established their own courts and appeal stages. At the same time, monastic houses were governed by the law of the Church at large, canon law. They were, at least in theory, under the firm control of the local bishop, who consecrated churches, acted as ordinary judge, and (nominally) controlled all monastic property, to name only some episcopal rights found in canon law from very early on. Both the legal position of individual monks and nuns and that of the communities in which they lived were thus shaped by legal norms as found in monastic rules and consuetudines, secular law, episcopal legislation, conciliar canons, and papal decretals.
Medieval Western Christians could recognize hermits. A reader admiring the image of the heavenly ladder in the encyclopedic Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg (d. 1195) could easily identify the bearded, barefoot, bare-shinned, rough-clad figure reaching for the “crown of life” ahead of the recluse, the monk, and the clerk, but who, alas, is losing his footing as he glances back at his garden. His high place is no accident. Peter Damian (d. 1072/3) describes the eremitical life as the “golden road … the high road, preeminent among others leading to higher things.” Yet scholars today do not find hermit-spotting similarly easy, and they debate what solitude is, how hermits relate to monastic rules, and where to classify temporary hermits and members of semi-eremitical religious orders. In the present study, hermits are defined as people who, for the sake of prayer, live an isolated existence in “wilderness” outside the outer court of a monastery or the bounds of a churchyard. Because human beings are social animals, no hermit could live in complete solitude in an untouched wilderness—at least no hermit whom historians could ever glimpse. Physical solitude is a relative ideal, one also cherished by recluses treated in the article by L’Hermite-Leclercq in this volume.
This paper traces the sensory dimensions of nuclear imperialism focusing on the Cold War nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States military in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s. Key to the formation of the “nuclear sensorium” were the interfaces between vibration, sound, and radioactive contamination, which were mobilized by scientists such as oceanographer Walter Munk as part of the US Nuclear Testing Program. While scientists occupied privileged points in technoscientific networks to sense the effects of nuclear weapons, a series of lawsuits filed by communities affected by the tests drew attention to military-scientific use of inhabitants’ bodies as repositories of data concerning the ecological impact of the bomb and the manner in which sensing practices used to extract this data extended the violence and trauma of nuclear weapons. Nuclear imperialism projected its power not only through weapons tests, the vaporization of land and the erosion of the rights of people who lived there, but also through the production of a “nuclear sensorium”—the differentiation of modes of sensing the bomb through legal, military, and scientific discourses and the attribution of varying degrees of epistemological value and legal weight to these sensory modes.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk.
We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis.
This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months.
Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol).
Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.
Strong strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures has great potential for different high-frequency multiferroic devices. In this article, we present the most recent progress in integrated multiferroic devices. Integrated magnetic tunable inductors with a wide operation frequency range, integrated nonreciprocal bandpass filters with dual magnetic and electric-field tunability based on magnetostatics surface waves, and novel radio-frequency nanomechanical ME resonators with pico-Tesla sensitivity for direct current magnetic fields are presented. Finally, a new antenna miniaturization mechanism, acoustically actuated nanomechanical ME antennas, which can successfully miniaturize the size by 1–2 orders, is introduced. With the advantages of high magnetic field sensitivity, highest antenna gain among all nanoscale antennas at similar frequency, integrated capability with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, and ground-plane immunity from metallic surfaces and the human body, ME antennas have a bright future for biomedical applications, wearable antennas, and the Internet of Things due to their unique and particular properties.
In their focal article, Cucina, Walmsley, Gast, Martin, and Curtin (2017) raise an important and timely issue, but go too far in arguing that practitioners should abandon survey key driver analysis (SKDA) altogether. There are many valuable benefits to using SKDA, and rather than discontinuing the practice entirely, we suggest that a better approach is to focus on ways to make it even more valuable to organizations. It is true that this area is in need of further research, but instead of asking whether we are driving down the right road, perhaps the right question is, “Are we there yet?”
Background: Delirium is common in critically ill patients and its presence is associated with increased mortality and increased likelihood of poor cognitive function among survivors. However, the cause of delirium is unknown. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess brain tissue oxygenation in patients with septic shock, who are at high risk of developing delirium. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a 33-bed general medical surgical intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were eligible for recruitment. The FORESIGHT NIRS monitor was used to assess brain tissue oxygenation in the frontal lobes for the first 72 hours of ICU admission. Physiological data was also recorded. We used the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU to screen for delirium.Results: From March 1st 2014-September 30th 2014, 10 patients with septic shock were recruited. The NIRS monitor captured 81% of the available data. No adverse events were recorded. Brain tissue oxygenation demonstrated significant intra- and inter-individual variability in the way it correlated with physiological parameters, such as mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Mean brain tissue oxygen levels were significantly lower in patients who were delirious for the majority of their ICU stay. Conclusion: It is feasible to record brain tissue oxygenation with NIRS in patients with septic shock. This study provides the infrastructure necessary for a larger prospective observational study to further examine the relationship between brain tissue oxygenation, physiological parameters, and acute neurological dysfunction.
This paper presents recently collected swath bathymetry from the Firth of Lorn. 553 km2 of data were collected during 2012–2013 as part of the INIS Hydro (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey) programme.
The area proves to consist of bedrock-dominated seabed, divided into narrow, stratigraphically-constrained and glacially-over-deepened basins. The bedrock is composed of late Proterozoic Dalradian metasediments overlain unconformably by Old Red Sandstone (ORS) sediments and lavas of ?Silurian-age. The central region of the Firth of Lorn is dominated by a vertical cliff, up to 150 m high and extending for approximately 24 km. This feature, here termed the Insh Fault, may have originated as a Dalradian extensional fault, been reactivated as an ORS feature and now forms a fault-line scarp with resistant ORS rocks on the downthrown side, flanking the more deeply eroded metasediments exposed in the basin. Tertiary intrusives are common, in particular, swarms of Paleocene dolerite dykes exposed on the sediment-free bedrock surfaces, and can be traced for many kilometres.
Evidence for past glaciation is widespread, manifest in the extensive erosion of the bedrock platforms and the abundance of well-preserved moraines and over-deepened basins. The survey region includes the Corryvreckan Whirlpool and Great Race, beneath the tidal flows of which occur submarine dunes.
It is unknown whether prodromal services improve outcomes in those who go on to develop psychosis, and whether these patients are demographically different from the overall first-episode population.
To compare sociodemographic features, duration of untreated psychosis, hospital admission and frequency of compulsory treatment in the first year after the onset of psychosis in patients who present to prodromal services with patients who did not present to services until the first episode of psychosis.
We compared two groups of patients with first-episode psychosis: one who made transition after presenting in the prodromal phase and the other who had presented with a first episode.
The patients who had presented before the first episode were more likely to be employed and less likely to belong to an ethnic minority group. They had a shorter duration of untreated psychosis, and were less likely to have been admitted to hospital and to have required compulsory treatment.
Patients who develop psychosis after being engaged in the prodromal phase have a better short-term clinical outcome than patients who do not present until the first episode. Patients who present during first episodes may be more likely to have sociodemographic features associated with relatively poor outcomes.
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies have
been reported in people with acute psychosis. We hypothesised that their
presence may be implicated in the aetiology of treatment-refractory
psychosis. We sought to ascertain the point prevalence of NMDA-R antibody
positivity in patients referred to services for treatment-refractory
psychosis. We found that 3 (7.0%) of 43 individuals had low positive NMDA-R
antibody titres. This suggests that NMDA-R autoantibodies are unlikely to
account for a large proportion of treatment-refractory psychosis.
Hagiography is by definition about measuring the distance between the human and the sacred: the saint's own distance, but also the hagiographer's and ours. Reginald of Durham's late-twelfth-century life of Godric of Finchale, begun during the saint's lifetime and finished not long after his death, probes all sorts of distances. It is no accident that many of Godric's feats and miracles involve clairvoyance and its auditory equivalent: feats of overcoming spatial or temporal distances in one's seeing and one's hearing. The Vita has a precise sense of place, centered on Godric's cell in the forest, but within a concentric circle of larger and larger horizons: the region, the territory of Durham, the sea shore, the ocean, Jerusalem; for Godric was a seafaring merchant before he became a hermit, and also a Jerusalem pilgrim who lived in the Holy Land for several years.
There is not very much scholarly literature on Godric, but interest in him has been constant. There is even a modern novel about him. Historians have long recognized the Vita's value as testimony to many aspects of medieval culture that are rarely illuminated by the narrative sources of the period. It is a life of a man of the people. Pirenne drew attention to Godric's early life as a merchant, as an international trader, and as a man of relatively humble origins working his way up by engaging in trade. Tom Licence and Susan Ridyard have studied him as a lay religious figure, integrated – or perhaps coopted or even coerced – by the monks of Durham into their project of possessing, controlling, and shaping their surrounding territory both economically and spiritually. The monks gained in him a hermitage, a cell with adjacent lands – but they also acquired a revered lay saint who could help their outreach to the laity of the region by modeling a spiritual life appropriate to them. Michael Clanchy has discussed Godric as an interesting example of a layman living on the periphery of monastic and literate culture.
Violent disorder broke out in various parts of England during the political turmoil of 1326–7 and included particularly severe rioting in the monastic towns of Abingdon, St Albans, and Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk. In January 1327 agitators from London roused the townspeople at Bury to conspire to attack and destroy the abbey of St Edmund. An armed mob forced entrance through the gates of the abbey on 14 January and seized and imprisoned the officials of the convent and several monks. They carried away all the treasures of the abbey, including the charters, muniments, and papal bulls from the sacristy and the treasury. Accounts of the legal process that followed the riots show the magnitude of the abbey's losses: in one, the monks alleged that the rioters had carried off three copies of a charter of King Cnut in their favour and four copies of a charter in Harthacnut's name. So denuded were the archives that the abbot had to pay the king to stay a suit against him in the royal courts, since he claimed the deeds he would have used for the defence of his case had been stolen by the rioters.
Rebels targeted Bury's archives again during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381. This time, however, they sought not to destroy the deeds but rather to consult them for evidence to substantiate some of their own claims. Like the authors of cahiers de doléance produced by the third estate in France in 1789, the rebels believed that the burdens of taxation and obligation had fallen less heavily on earlier generations, and that the abbey’s earliest charters would confirm their view. They thus demanded that the monks produce, ‘in the sight of the commons’, the charters of liberty for ‘the vill which Cnut, the founder of the monastery had once granted’. The monks duly brought out before the guildhall all the charters they could find and showed them to the mayor, the aldermen, ‘and a whole crowd of villeins’. When the rebels declared themselves unhappy with the documents produced by the abbey, the monks agreed to search their charters again to find the evidence for the liberties which St Edmund’s claimed; further, they promised that if they found none, they would produce new ones to serve the purpose.
Contained in two manuscripts preserved in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana is a little-known chronicle by an anonymous writer of the mid-twelfth century which may shed more light on an epoch-making event on the eve of the Crusades: the Norman conquest of Sicily. This source, collated into a single transcription by Giambattista Caruso in 1723 and reproduced in the Rerum Italicarum Scriptores by Ludovico Muratori in 1726, is called the Historia Sicula a Normannis ad Petrum Aragonensem by Anonymus Vaticanus. Despite the fact that it is one of a very few sources to describe a seminal episode in Mediterranean history, the Historia Sicula has not been discussed in any depth for over a century. This essay seeks to correct that oversight.
In his formative work, Mohammed and Charlemagne, the great Belgian historian Henri Pirenne contended that ‘the rapid and unexpected advance of Islam’ had precipitated ‘the end of Mediterranean unity’ by vanquishing the mare nostrum of ancient Rome. The resultant loss of Sicily to the Aghlabids of North Africa in the ninth century established what maritime historian A.R. Lewis termed ‘the Islamic Imperium’ and inspired the fourteenth-century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldūn to claim that ‘the Muslims had gained control over the whole of the Mediterranean’. At the beginning of the eleventh century, the Mediterranean was, in effect, a Muslim lake with most of its major islands, including Sicily, firmly ensconced in Dar al-Islam (the ‘House of Islam’).
A string of recent publications has sought to emphasize the relationship between the memorial and the material in the medieval period. Drawing on this body of work, this essay explores the dynamic relationship between physical objects and the memories associated with them in the Historia ecclesiastica of Orderic Vitalis. Written between c. 1114 and 1141 at the abbey of St Evroul, located in the pays d'Ouche on the southern frontier of Normandy, the massive thirteen-book Historia is widely recognized by scholars as being one of the most important sources for the history of the Anglo-Norman world and beyond, and it has been the subject of much study since the 1950s. Whilst it is a well known fact that Orderic drew on a large number of written and oral sources in the writing of the Historia, the exact role played by the material and the visual in this process has remained largely unexplored. The focus of this article is thus on the way in which these objects are described in Orderic's narrative and the implications of this for our understanding of the Historia as a whole.
Leonie Hicks has recently highlighted ‘the visibility of the past’ as an important theme in historical writing, observing that for the Anglo-Norman chroniclers, ‘monuments and places … were much more than just illustrations to or diversions from the main narrative: they were in fact integral to the message they were trying to convey'. Thus, while such descriptive passages are interesting in and of themselves, the purpose of examining this largely unexplored aspect of Orderic’s magnum opus here is to highlight the textual richness of the Historia and to demonstrate what these passages reveal about the purpose of its narrative. For the more one studies Orderic, the more one notices passages concerning objects that he claimed were still in existence at the time of his writing, such as a memorial roll, a Psalter, and a stone arch.