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The landscape of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is changing rapidly. The primary objective of this study was to assess the benefit of linking population-based infection prevention and control surveillance data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to hospital discharge abstract data (DAD). We assessed the value of this novel data linkage for the characterization of hospital-acquired (HA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) cases.
Incident inpatient MRSA surveillance data for all adults (≥18 years) from 4 acute-care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2017, were linked to DAD. Personal health number (PHN) and gender were used to identify specific individuals, and specimen collection time-points were used to identify specific hospitalization records. A third common variable on admission date between these databases was used to validate the linkage process. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA cases identified through the linkage process.
A total of 2,430 surveillance records (94.6%) were successfully linked to the correct hospitalization period. By linking surveillance and administrative data, we were able to identify key differences between patients with HA- and CA-MRSA. These differences are consistent with previously reported findings in the literature. Data linkage to DAD may be a novel tool to enhance and augment the details of base surveillance data.
Conclusion and recommendations:
This is the first Canadian study linking a frontline healthcare-associated infection AMR surveillance database to an administrative population database. This work represents an important methodological step toward complementing traditional AMR surveillance data practices. Data linkage to other data types, such as primary care, emergency, social, and biological data, may be the basis of achieving more precise data focused around AMR.
To determine the attributable cost and length of stay of hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) from the healthcare payer perspective using linked clinical, administrative, and microcosting data.
A retrospective, population-based, propensity-score–matched cohort study.
Acute-care facilities in Alberta, Canada.
Admitted adult (≥18 years) patients with incident HA-CDI and without CDI between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2016.
Incident cases of HA-CDI were identified using a clinical surveillance definition. Cases were matched to noncases of CDI (those without a positive C. difficile test or without clinical CDI) on propensity score and exposure time. The outcomes were attributable costs and length of stay of the hospitalization where the CDI was identified. Costs were expressed in 2018 Canadian dollars.
Of the 2,916 HA-CDI cases at facilities with microcosting data available, 98.4% were matched to 13,024 noncases of CDI. The total adjusted cost among HA-CDI cases was 27% greater than noncases of CDI (ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.33). The mean attributable cost was $18,386 (CAD 2018; USD $14,190; 95% CI, $14,312–$22,460; USD $11,046-$17,334). The adjusted length of stay among HA-CDI cases was 13% greater than for noncases of CDI (ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07–1.19), which corresponds to an extra 5.6 days (95% CI, 3.10–8.06) in length of hospital stay per HA-CDI case.
In this population-based, propensity score matched analysis using microcosting data, HA-CDI was associated with substantial attributable cost.
In recent years, researchers in pre-Hispanic Central America have used new approaches that greatly amplify and enhance evidence of plants and their uses. This paper presents a case study from Puerto Escondido, located in the lower Ulúa River valley of Caribbean coastal Honduras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using multiple methods in concert to interpret ethnobotanical practice in the past. By examining chipped-stone tools, ceramics, sediments from artifact contexts, and macrobotanical remains, we advance complementary inquiries. Here, we address botanical practices “in the home,” such as foodways, medicinal practices, fiber crafting, and ritual activities, and those “close to home,” such as agricultural and horticultural practices, forest management, and other engagements with local and distant ecologies. This presents an opportunity to begin to develop an understanding of ethnoecology at Puerto Escondido, here defined as the dynamic relationship between affordances provided in a botanical landscape and the impacts of human activities on that botanical landscape.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To understand the mechanisms of how a non-antimicrobial can reshape a commensal microbe community to cure a ubiquitous human disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Whole genome sequencing of bacterial isolates, metabolomic investigations of previously collected skin microbe isolates from patients, and structural investigations of a protein from these skin microbes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Metabolic pathways associated with adaptation to a changing skin microenvironment, novel antimicrobial characterization, and a structural understanding of a novel nutrient acquisition protein. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Multiple angles of this investigation are poised to improve current non-antimicrobial dermatologic treatments and they have the potential to impact microbe-related diseases in other human microenvironments.
Nearly 800,000 primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures are performed annually in North America. Approximately 1% of these are complicated by a complex surgical site infection (SSI), leading to very high healthcare costs. However, population-based studies to properly estimate the economic burden are lacking. We aimed to address this knowledge gap.
Economic burden study.
Using administrative health and clinical databases, we created a cohort of all patients in Alberta, Canada, who received a primary hip or knee arthroplasty between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015. All patients who developed a complex SSI postoperatively were identified through a provincial infection prevention and control database. A combination of corporate microcosting data and gross costing methods were used to determine total mean 12- and 24-month costs, enabling comparison of costs between the infected and noninfected patients.
Mean 12-month total costs were significantly greater in patients who developed a complex SSI compared to those who did not (CAD$95,321 [US$68,150] vs CAD$19,893 [US$14,223]; P < .001). The magnitude of the cost difference persisted even after controlling for underlying patient factors. The most commonly identified causative pathogen (38%) was Staphylococcus aureus (95% MSSA).
Complex SSIs following hip and knee arthroplasty lead to high healthcare costs, which are expected to rise as the yearly number of surgeries increases. Using our costing estimates, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to prevent SSIs should be investigated.
Current policy emphasises the importance of ‘living well’ with dementia, but there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the factors related to quality of life (QoL), subjective well-being or life satisfaction in people with dementia. We examined the available evidence in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic databases until 7 January 2016 for observational studies investigating factors associated with QoL, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia. Articles had to provide quantitative data and include ⩾75% people with dementia of any type or severity. We included 198 QoL studies taken from 272 articles in the meta-analysis. The analysis focused on 43 factors with sufficient data, relating to 37639 people with dementia. Generally, these factors were significantly associated with QoL, but effect sizes were often small (0.1–0.29) or negligible (<0.09). Factors reflecting relationships, social engagement and functional ability were associated with better QoL. Factors indicative of poorer physical and mental health (including depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms) and poorer carer well-being were associated with poorer QoL. Longitudinal evidence about predictors of QoL was limited. There was a considerable between-study heterogeneity. The pattern of numerous predominantly small associations with QoL suggests a need to reconsider approaches to understanding and assessing living well with dementia.
Legislative redistricting alters the political and electoral context for some voters but not others, thus offering a potentially promising research design to study many questions of interest in political science. We apply this design to study the effect that descriptive representation has on co-ethnic political engagement, focusing on Hispanic participation following California's 2000 redistricting cycle. We show that when redistrictors draw legislative boundaries in California's 1990, 2000, and 2010 apportionment cycles, they systematically sort higher-participating Hispanic voters into majority-Hispanic (MH) jurisdictions represented by co-ethnic candidates, biasing subsequent comparisons of Hispanic participation across districts. Similar sorting occurs during redistricting in Florida and Texas, though here the pattern is reversed, with less-participating Hispanic voters redistricted to MH districts. Our study highlights important heterogeneity in redistricting largely unknown or underappreciated in previous research. Ignoring this selection problem could significantly bias estimates of the effect of Hispanic representation, either positively or negatively. After we correct for these biases using a hierarchical genetic matching algorithm, we find that, in California, being moved to a district with an Hispanic incumbent has little impact on Hispanic participation in our data.
Yes, it could begin this way, right here, just like that …
George Perec, Life | A User's Manual.
Just how creative can [should?] a biographer be? When creating a life for someone creative? Lefkowitz importantly stresses just how hard [impossible] it is, and ever was, to write out getting into a position to think, imagine, produce, realize, and deliver into the public domain any piece of work – creatively. If these essays could only tell their tales …
To set a writing life within a persuasively formative frame must always be the approximate, suggestive, abyssal business of reading into the grain of the person that Lampe characterizes as the adynaton of biography – working always with and against the formulae, topoi, traditions that always shape the modes of intelligibility that style persons within the cultures involved (both parties in the deal) – but also privilege persons attributed with a special ‘gift’ with their extraordinariness, and its starring weirdness, blessedness, mystico-mythical aura and definitive otherness, including unseizably enigmatic unruliness. Elaborate stories of the trials of error, repetitive workshop grind, aching bodies, crappy tools and out of tune instruments can deploy in picturing creativity, but apprentices, factory, patronage and self-promo eventing … – this is unlikely to catch imaginative genius in a portrait likely to come across as itself an imagination glittering on the page.
What must count as the volume's thrust is the aetiological task set by the creations. How come the ancient sculpture and painting fraternity managed to leave us no portraiture of themselves? Platt starkly documents both craving for authorship at work here and its frustration by the ancient abjection of these manual hirelings. Contrast with LeVen's attuned enthusiasm for the ever-immaculate purity of the imaginary song-and-dance man Orpheus, focus and model for all bearers of the recreative and recreating powers of musical beauty and pleasure on down the line of biographeme rips and remixes (including Low's sainted Archilochus on Paros). Stick to the pride of Litterae Humaniores, and read authority through the performed, recounted, figured antics embodied in the classic texts and referred to their embedding authors: Uhlig's incipiently (auto)biographizing Pindaric post-Homers; Laird and his team of Virgil-orchestrators envisioning their author hidden all across the work in his works.
Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated.
To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period.
Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions.
Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%–16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%–4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.
PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden.
To quantify the association of dietary quality with prospective changes in adiposity.
Children participating in the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth) study underwent examination at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Dietary quality was assessed by the Diet Quality Index–International (DQII) using three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls at baseline. The DQII has four main categories: dietary adequacy, variety, moderation and overall balance. Fat mass index (FMI; [fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), central FMI (CFMI; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), percentage body fat (%BF; [total fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) and percentage central BF (%CBF; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Children were selected from schools in the greater Montreal, Sherbrooke and Quebec City metropolitan areas between 2005 and 2008, Quebec, Canada.
A total of 546 children aged 8–10 years, including 244 girls and 302 boys.
Regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity and Tanner stage revealed that every 10-unit improvement in overall DQII score was associated with lower gain in CFMI (β=−0·08; 95 % CI −0·17, −0·003) and %BF (β=−0·55; 95 % CI −1·08, −0·02). Each unit improvement in dietary adequacy score was associated with lower gain in FMI (β=−0·05; 95 % CI −0·08, −0·008), CFMI (β=−0·03; 95 % CI −0·05, −0·007), %BF (β=−0·15; 95 % CI −0·28, −0·03) and %CBF (β=−0·09; 95 % CI −0·15, −0·02).
Promotion of dietary quality and adequacy may reduce weight gain in childhood and prevent chronic diseases later in life.
To conduct a full economic evaluation assessing the costs and consequences related to probiotic use for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD).
Cost-effectiveness analysis using decision analytic modeling.
A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to evaluate the risk of CDAD and the costs of receiving oral probiotics versus not over a time horizon of 30 days. The target population modeled was all adult inpatients receiving any therapeutic course of antibiotics from a publicly funded healthcare system perspective. Effectiveness estimates were based on a recent systematic review of probiotics for the primary prevention of CDAD. Additional estimates came from local data and the literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess how plausible changes in variables impacted the results.
Treatment with oral probiotics led to direct costs of CDN $24 per course of treatment per patient. On average, patients treated with oral probiotics had a lower overall cost compared with usual care (CDN $327 vs $845). The risk of CDAD was reduced from 5.5% in those not receiving oral probiotics to 2% in those receiving oral probiotics. These results were robust to plausible variation in all estimates.
Oral probiotics as a preventive strategy for CDAD resulted in a lower risk of CDAD as well as cost-savings. The cost-savings may be greater in other healthcare systems that experience a higher incidence and cost associated with CDAD.
The 1260 movement was the first widespread outbreak of popular fervour in medieval Italy to make flagellation the centre of its devotion. Together with subsequent movements it provided a general impetus to lay religious life by leading to the foundation of a large number of confraternities all over the country. In this paper I intend to describe this phenomenon and in this way examine the motivation, collective and individual, which led people to participate. I shall then outline briefly the devotional practices of flagellant companies and show how they came to institutionalise the spirit of this popular fervour.
The confraternities of late-medieval Europe have been seen as associations which were in some ways almost independent of the Church, and drew their special dynamism from the fact that the parish was supposedly in decline and had ceased to provide an adequate religious service to the lay community. However true this may have been north of the Alps, the problem when this proposition is applied to southern Europe, and particularly Italy, is that very little is known about the late-medieval parish to ascertain whether confraternities were really syphoning off the adherence of the local inhabitants. So often our impressions about the state of the Italian church derive from the sporadic visitations of local bishops or the ribald stories of a Boccaccio or Franco Sacchetti, later repeated and taken almost at face value by such influential writers as Burkhardt. But we may also be in danger of seeing late-medieval religion filtered through sixteenth-century eyes and taking for granted the correctness of the criticisms of the Council of Trent or for that matter following Luther’s gripes that confraternities had become no more than beer-drinking clubs.