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The history of life is replete with apparent order. Much of this order may reflect the deterministic causes conventionally invoked, but we cannot be sure until we measure and subtract the order that arises in simple random systems. Consequently, we have constructed a random model that builds evolutionary trees by allowing lineages to branch and become extinct at equal probabilities. We proceed by dividing our simulated tree into clades and by comparing their sizes and shapes with the patterns exhibited by “real” clades as recorded by fossils.
We regard the similarity of real and random clades as the outstanding result of this comparison. In both real and random systems, extinct clades arising after an “ecological barrel” had been filled have their maximum diversity at the midpoint of their duration; clades arising during the initial “filling” reach an earlier climax during this preequilibrial period of rapid diversification. However, some potential differences also emerge. Clades still living are much larger than extinct clades. We may attribute this to the morphological superiority of survivors, but we can also simulate it in a model that chooses the originators of clades at random. Real clades undergo greater fluctuations in diversity than do random clades, but the effect is not marked.
We discuss the stellar halos of massive elliptical galaxies, as revealed by our ambitious integral-field spectroscopic survey MASSIVE. We show that metallicity drops smoothly as a function of radius out to ~ 2.5 Re, while the [α/Fe] abundance ratios stay flat. The stars in the outskirts likely formed rapidly (to explain the high ratio of alpha to Fe) but in a relatively shallow potential (to explain the low metallicities). This is consistent with expectations for a two-phase growth of massive galaxies, in which the second phase involves accretion of small satellites. We also show some preliminary study of the gas content of these most MASSIVE galaxies.
It is some years now since the Oxford anthropologist Edwin Ardener in his article ‘Belief and the problem of women’ drew attention to the striking lack of progress that had been made in understanding traditional societies as they are seen from the point of view of women: ‘the models of a society made by most ethnographers tend to be models derived from the male portion of that society’. The result, as he pointed out, is that, in considering social structure, ‘we are, for practical purposes, in a male world. The study of women is on a level little higher than the study of the ducks and fowl they commonly own.’ He went on to put forward an explanation of the fact, by suggesting that, since the dominant structure of society is articulated and communicated in terms of a male world-position, women constitute a ‘muted group’, made inarticulate by the lack of a language in which to communicate their particular sense of society and its relationship to the totality of experience.
Plays, we say, are about people, about people doing and saying things. What they say and do gives us access to the kind of people they are – their personalities, their individuality, their ‘character’. And we find people interesting. Simply, crudely put, this is the basis of what we call our interest in dramatic character. It is in her clear-sighted attention to this simple but central fact that Mrs. Easterling's essay on ‘Presentation of character in Aeschylus’ is at its most effective. But as we go on to ask further questions, about precisely what our interest in dramatic personality amounts to, about what it springs from and what are its necessary conditions in dramatic and theatrical form, further discriminations become necessary. I am not at all sure, for example, that it is true, as Mrs. Easterling suggests, that ‘the people and events of Aeschylean drama … convince us with the same kind of blinding authenticity as we find in Shakespeare and George Eliot'. We may have to distinguish between very different modes of authenticity. Again, Mrs. Easterling's appeal to ‘human intelligibility’ seems to me not without ambiguity. This paper is an attempt to forward discussion of dramatic personality in the context of Greek tragedy by examining some of the ambiguities inherent in the concept and to offer some possible discriminations. It is a contribution to an argument rather than a statement of a position.
An alternative proof of a theorem which characterises orders in semiprime rings with minimal condition is given. The approach used is to make use of the corresponding result for prime rings and is inspired by Herstein's proof of Goldie's theorem on orders in semisimple Artinian rings.
Refrigeration, air conditioning, and other cooling requirements in buildings, industry, and transportation sectors account for about 10 quads of U.S. primary energy consumption. Therefore, advanced technologies for space cooling in buildings and vehicles – as well as for refrigeration in residential, commercial, and industrial applications – that are more energy efficient, avoid net direct greenhouse gas emissions, reduce lifecycle costs, and can impact large markets are needed. Although current technologies are reaching their efficiency limits, thermoelectric (TE) materials can be used for cooling applications and have potential for significant improvements. Compared to traditional bulk phase TE materials, literature results suggest that nanometer-scale materials allow additional opportunities to improve the efficiency of TE materials. Aerogels are one type of nano-material that offers opportunities to increase the efficiency of TE materials by controlling particle size, particle composition and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is the most studied TE material and our objective was to produce bismuth telluride aerogels with controlled microstructures and thermal conductivities to increase the TE figure of merit. Aspen Aerogels developed a novel synthesis method to prepare Bi2Te3 aerogels using the principles of colloidal chemistry and sol-gel chemistry. The reaction conditions were investigated and optimized so that gels could be obtained at low reaction temperatures. The gels were aged and dried using supercritical CO2. The aerogels were characterized by BET, XRD, and SEM. The best aerogels were hot pressed and Seebeck coefficients were determined. The synthetic approach developed and the properties of the aerogels will be presented and compared with Bi2Te3 aerogels and materials prepared by other methods.
We examined interventions to optimize piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 hospitals. Interventions for rotating house staff did not affect use. We could target empiric therapy in only 35% of cases. Because prescribing practices seemed to be institution specific, interventions should address attitudes of local prescribers. Interventions should target empiric therapy and ordering of appropriate cultures.
In 1973, then-Chief Justice Warren Burger, at the suggestion of his administrative assistant, Mark Cannon, created the Judicial Fellows Program to allow scholars to engage in “challenging work for a year” at the Supreme Court and other federal judicial agencies (Tobias 1996, 510). The program is designed to attract, in Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's words, “bright-minded, caring, uncommonly fine humans, people who remain … in permanent fellowship with the Federal Judiciary” after their year (Ginsburg 1998, 3).
This paper examines the political economy of the Orange Revolution in an effort to understand routes by which less democratic postcommunist countries might break with an illiberal status quo. The fusion of Ukraine's rent-seeking economic interests and illiberal political regime produced an unstable equilibrium that is poorly explained by two leading theoretical frameworks: ‘market reform’ and ‘political competition’ theory. Only by combining key insights from each do we get a full explanation of the pressures that generated Ukraine's challenge to illiberalism in 2004. We examine this story with a particular focus on the crisis-prone nature of ‘competitive authoritarian regimes’ and the related strategic calculations of business elites.
William J. Borucki, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA,
David Koch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA,
Gibor Basri, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA,
Timothy Brown, High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO 80307, USA,
Douglas Caldwell, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA,
Edna Devore, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA,
Edward Dunham, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA,
Thomas Gautier, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA,
John Geary, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard, MA 02138, USA,
Ronald Gilliland, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA,
Alan Gould, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA,
Steve Howell, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA,
Jon Jenkins, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA,
David Latham, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard, MA 02138, USA
Mario Livio, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore,Kailash Sahu, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore,Jeff Valenti, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore
Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and smaller planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of spectral type F through M dwarf stars. The instrument consists of a 0.95 m aperture photometer to do high-precision photometry of 100,000 solar-like stars to search for patterns of transits. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. Multi-band ground-based observation of these stars is currently underway to estimate the stellar parameters and to choose appropriate targets. With these parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale—hence the relation to the HZ—can be determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four-year mission, several hundred terrestrial planets should be discovered with periods between 1–400 days, if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets are rare. Based on the results of the recent Doppler-velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will also be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. The mission is now in Phase C/D development and is scheduled for launch in 2008 into a 372-day heliocentric orbit.
To describe patient characteristics and clinical activities at a British military department of community mental health (DCMH). Data were drawn from a clinical database over a 1-year period (n=409).
Mean age was 29 years, 50% were single and 76% were from the junior ranks. Women were over-represented compared with the wider military population. Mean length of service prior to presentation was 5 years. The main presenting problem was alcohol misuse (33%) followed by depression (19%). Twenty-five per cent were referred for psychotherapy and 68% returned to full employment after treatment.
Patient characteristics of those treated at a DCMH differ from those in the wider military. An out-patient occupational mental health service returns a substantial number of patients to occupational fitness within the Armed Forces.
This paper applies the insights of obsolescing bargaining theory to a situation in which a host country interacted with both multinational corporations and an international organization, the World Bank. Drawing on resource curse literature and the Rubinstein bargaining model, we demonstrate the continued usefulness of obsolescing bargaining theory by explaining why the World Bank had to renegotiate its initial bargain with Chad in the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project. The paper explores how specific bargaining parameters changed over time in this case and suggests how resource curse dynamics and their impact on domestic politics might be particularly relevant for bargaining between host countries and international actors. The case study serves as a warning to international financial institutions and corporations alike with regard to the ways in which obsolescing bargains can arise in the contemporary global political-economy.