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In the territory between the Amazon and Orinoco rivers in the late sixteenth century, Sir Walter Raleigh observed natives use arrows with a “poison” so strong that its victims died, not by direct physical injury, but rather by the perishing effect of its poison. Curiosity in this substance by European explorers helped transform curare from an arrow poison to a surgical relaxant. The introduction of muscle relaxants revolutionized anesthetic practice as it allowed for improved surgical conditions, lower levels of volatile anesthetics, and improved tracheal intubation conditions.
The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
2017 marked the 130th anniversary of the start of the Carte du Ciel project, an ambitious proposal by the Paris Observatory to map the entire sky using photographiy, which required the joint work of numerous observatories in the world. For this endeavour, an impressive organization was designed that included congresses, commissions and publications, which lasted through many years. The Carte du Ciel finally became one of the immediate antecedents of the International Astronomical Union, which in 2019 celebrates its first century. In Latin America, the observatories of Santiago de Chile, La Plata and Rio de Janeiro, the Argentine National Observatory and the Tacubaya Observatory, in Mexico, were involved in the project. In this presentation, we present part of the history of the failures and successes of one of the most important collaborative astronomical projects on the planet.
The astronomical community accepts the division of the celestial sphere into 88 constellations, according to what was established by the IAU. In the first Assembly of 1922 the use of Latin names for constellations and their abbreviations was resolved. The pending issue of the limits of the constellations was discussed in the next meeting and Eugène Delporte had the responsibility for the complete theoretical demarcation. For his work, Delporte took into account what was done half a century earlier in the famous work Uranometría Argentina, published in 1877 and 1879, under the supervition of Benjamin Gould. In ths presentation we discusse the situation at the moment when the constellation boundaries were proposed using arcs of RA circles and parallels of declination, choosing them in such a way that they did not deviate too much from those used in the most important celestial atlas of the time, and minimizing the changes of which constellations stars would belong to.
Achieving a consistent level of robot utilisation throughout 24 h maximises automatic milking system (AMS) utilisation. However, levels of robot utilisation in the early morning hours are typically low, caused by the diurnal feeding behaviour of cows, limiting the inherent capacity and total production of pasture-based AMS. Our objective was to determine robot utilisation throughout 24 h by dairy cows, based on milking frequency (MF; milking events per animal per day) in a pasture-based AMS. Milking data were collected from January and February 2013 across 56 days, from a single herd of 186 animals (Bos taurus) utilising three Lely A3 robotic milking units, located in Tasmania, Australia. The dairy herd was categorised into three equal sized groups (n=62 per group) according to the cow’s mean daily MF over the duration of the study. Robot utilisation was characterised by an interaction (P< 0.001) between the three MF groups and time of day, with peak milking time for high MF cows within one h of a fresh pasture allocation becoming available, followed by the medium MF and low MF cows 2 and 4 h later, respectively. Cows in the high MF group also presented for milking between 2400 and 0600 h more frequently (77% of nights), compared to the medium MF group (57%) and low MF group (50%). This study has shown the formation of three distinct groups of cows within a herd, based on their MF levels. Further work is required to determine if this finding is replicated across other pasture-based AMS farms.
The aim of this review is to synthesize empirical studies on undergraduate language learners’ experience abroad during a time period of a year or less. To help provide a framework to this synthesis, we begin our review by tracing the recent evolution of empirical mixed-method research on the learner, identifying problems and characteristics that language learners generally encounter in the study abroad (SA) experience. We take a closer look at variables related to individual difference such as anxiety, motivation, and attitudes to more recent views of learner identity in language learning. We highlight the shift to language learner agency, a topic that merits more discussion in SA literature. We then review how the SA learning environments are treated. This review takes a closer look at research informed by socially grounded theories. Finally, we review the role that SA plays in undergraduate language curricula, where the objectives of the experience are aligned with at-home (AH) curricula, a topic that has not been fully discussed in SA literature. The conclusions offer suggestions for keeping pace with the broader field of applied/educational linguistics.
In the UK, 11.8% of expectant mothers undergo an elective caesarean section (ELCS) representing 92 000 births per annum. It is not known to what extent this procedure has an impact on mental well-being in the longer term.
To determine the prevalence and postpartum progression of anxiety and depression symptoms in women undergoing ELCS in Wales.
Prevalence of depression and anxiety were determined in women at University Hospital Wales (2015–16; n = 308) through completion of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; ≥13) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; ≥40) questionnaires 1 day prior to ELCS, and three postpartum time points for 1 year. Maternal characteristics were determined from questionnaires and, where possible, confirmed from National Health Service maternity records.
Using these criteria the prevalence of reported depression symptoms was 14.3% (95% CI 10.9–18.3) 1 day prior to ELCS, 8.0% (95% CI 4.2–12.5) within 1 week, 8.7% (95% CI 4.2–13.8) at 10 weeks and 12.4% (95% CI 6.4–18.4) 1 year postpartum. Prevalence of reported anxiety symptoms was 27.3% (95% CI 22.5–32.4), 21.7% (95% CI 15.8–28.0), 25.3% (95% CI 18.5–32.7) and 35.1% (95% CI 26.3–44.2) at these same stages. Prenatal anxiety was not resolved after ELCS more than 1 year after delivery.
Women undergoing ELCS experience prolonged anxiety postpartum that merits focused clinical attention.
We argue that although objectivist moral attitudes may facilitate cooperation, they are not necessary for the high levels of cooperation in humans. This is implied by evolutionary models that articulate a mechanism underlying Stanford's account, and is also suggested by the ability of merely conventional social norms to explain extreme human behaviors.
Certain forestry and agricultural practices are known to affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities, but the effects of deforestation – including slash-and-burn management and other more severe disturbances – in tropical rain forests are poorly understood. We addressed the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on rain-forest AM fungal communities in French Guiana, by comparing mature tropical rain forest, slash-and-burn (5 y old) and clearcut areas (8 y old). A total of 36 soil samples were collected in six plots and sequenced using a high throughput 454-pyrosequencing platform. A total of 32649 sequences from 103 AM fungal virtual taxa (VT) were recorded. Whereas alpha diversity of AM fungi did not decrease due to land-use intensification, with average richness ranging from 17 to 21 taxa per plot, beta diversity (average distance to multivariate centroid) dropped by 28% from 0.46 in rain forest to 0.33 under clearcutting. AM fungal community composition was correlated with land use and soil chemical properties. Clearcut areas were characterized by the more frequent occurrence of specialist AM fungi, compared with mature forest or slash-and-burn areas. Specifically, clearcuts contained the highest proportions of VT that were geographic (21%), habitat (31%), abundance (97%) or host (97%) specialists based on VT metadata contained in the MaarjAM database. This suggests that certain AM fungi with narrow ecological niches have traits that allow them to exploit conditions of severe disturbance. In conclusion, slash-and-burn management appears to allow diverse AM fungal communities to persist, and may favour regeneration of tropical rain forest after abandonment. More severe disturbance in the form of clearcutting resulted in marked changes in AM fungal communities.
Metamaterials offer the possibility to control and manipulate electromagnetic radiation. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials are the focus of this Element of the Metamaterials Series. The fundamentals of spoof surface plasmons are reviewed, and advances on plasmonic metamaterials based on spoof plasmons are presented. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials on a wide range of geometries are discussed: from planar platforms to waveguides and localized modes, including cylindrical structures, grooves, wedges, dominos or conformal surface plasmons in ultrathin platforms. The Element closes with a review of recent advances and applications such as Terahertz sensing or integrated devices and circuits.
Although the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi is now very common and widespread throughout Western Europe, reports of clinical cases are still rare. This study explores the epidemiological background to a severe rumen fluke outbreak in 6-month-old heifers on a dairy farm in Ireland. Sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of the rumen fluke metacercariae on pasture failed to identify predominant, possibly pathogenic subtypes. However, estimates of metacercarial load indicated that the animals were exposed to a daily dose of about 5334 C. daubneyi metacercariae for a period of 3 weeks resulting in the build-up of very large numbers of immature worms in the small intestine. It is hypothesized that specific environmental conditions may favour this parasite over its competitor, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, possibly by allowing it to emerge earlier. The possibility that C. daubneyi may be better adapted to the Irish climate than F. hepatica together with the fact that selective treatment against F. hepatica effectively frees the niche for C. daubneyi, may result in the gradual replacement of F. hepatica by C. daubneyi.
The Recorrido Arqueológico de Coixtlahuaca (RAC) presents period-by-period settlement pattern maps for the valley of Coixtlahuaca in the northern Mixteca Alta. The RAC project made improvements in full-coverage survey methods. We identify limitations and suggest that similar projects in the future need to resolve several management and budget problems. The survey revealed two periods of heavy occupation, 700–300 BC and AD 1200–1520, separated by a long period of lower population. Archaeological and historical data indicate that during the AD 1200–1520 period, and probably earlier, small landholders organized in strong communities managed an intensive agroecosystem, investing in landesque capital. Urbanization was impressive, yet cities were aggregations of communities and barrios. Today local citizens pose questions about how the large prehispanic population could have organized and sustained itself; these questions coincide with anthropological interest in collective agency, property, landesque capital, and collapse.
While the concept and measurement of race has been a longstanding focus of social science research, capturing its significance requires a broader notion than utilizing only racial group categories. More recently, race has been treated as both a “characteristic” and a set of experiences that affect a multitude of life conditions and outcomes. This discussion and analysis moves away from treating race as only a categorical and static characteristic to a multi-dimensional concept that is dynamic, relational, and represents the intersection of individual, ecological, and structural components. By exploring the data collection of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research and studies that include race as a variable, we were able to trace how race has been used by social scientists over the past 60 years. Using an extensive coding protocol, we have attained key characteristics of the principal investigator(s) (PI), funders, scope of the overall study, and the use of different measures of race. As a result, this “meta-analysis” of social science surveys enabled this researcher to examine how these studies use a wide scope of racial “variables,” and the way in which PI characteristics affected the inclusion of race-related items. In addition, bivariate analysis is presented to examine social scientists’ tendencies in investigating race and inclusion of qualitative examples of item wordings and response categories. This overview of social science studies is placed in the context of conceptual and measurement issues surrounding the use and meaning of race. Hopefully this can serve to advance the discussion and strategic approaches in doing research about race and what should be incorporated in studying race as a lived experience.
Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100 mW signal is swept from 2 to 8 GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 cm range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10 cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.
We have obtained the oxygen abundance in a sample of 44 F-type dwarfs in the Ursa Major group and the Hyades open cluster, using an NLTE analysis of the O I infrared triplet at λλ 7771-7775 Å. These clusters show the “lithium gap” in the F spectral range, and it has been suggested that if this phenomenon were due to microscopic diffusion, their Li-depleted stars could also show oxygen and/or nitrogen depletion. Our results here show a substantial measure of uniformity in the oxygen abundances. The data might indicate a very small dip (< 0.1 dex) in the O abundance for stars located in the Li gap. Microscopic diffusion seems to be the only known mechanism able to produce an oxygen dip. If this mechanism were responsible for the Li gap, it would have to account for a depletion of up to two orders of magnitude in Li and, at the same time, less than 0.1 dex in oxygen. We note that turbulent mixing could modify a microscopic diffusion pattern in order to yield the observed abundances of the two elements.
We present new beryllium abundances for three unevolved stars with [Fe/H] in the range −0.4 to −1.6. The Be II doublet is detected in the three stars. A spectral synthesis analysis has been conducted to derive the abundances. We briefly discuss their Be and Li abundances, together with a wide sample of stars from the literature, in the context of mixing processes below the convection zone.
Automatic milking systems (AMS), one of the earliest precision livestock farming developments, have revolutionized dairy farming around the world. While robots control the milking process, there have also been numerous changes to how the whole farm system is managed. Milking is no longer performed in defined sessions; rather, the cow can now choose when to be milked in AMS, allowing milking to be distributed throughout a 24 h period. Despite this ability, there has been little attention given to milking robot utilization across 24 h. In order to formulate relevant research questions and improve farm AMS management there is a need to determine the current knowledge gaps regarding the distribution of robot utilization. Feed, animal and management factors and their interplay on levels of milking robot utilization across 24 h for both indoor and pasture-based systems are here reviewed. The impact of the timing, type and quantity of feed offered and their interaction with the distance of feed from the parlour; herd social dynamics, climate and various other management factors on robot utilization through 24 h are provided. This novel review draws together both the opportunities and challenges that exist for farm management to use these factors to improved system efficiency and those that exist for further research.
Introduction: Common short screening measures of dependence that use number of cigarettes per day may not be appropriate for use in populations of occasional smokers.
Aims: In this study, we investigate whether perceived addiction (PA) predicts quit attempts and successful cessation among occasional smokers.
Methods: Current occasional smokers (18+) in the Ontario Tobacco Survey (OTS) longitudinal cohort study followed up every six months for up to three years. Respondents rated their self-perceived level of addiction (very vs. somewhat or not very addicted). Generalised Estimating Equation models and proportional hazard models were used to test the predictive ability of PA.
Results/Findings: Occasional smokers with very high PA had a higher likelihood of reporting a quit attempt (RR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.88, 3.30) after adjusting for demographics. Given an incident quit attempt, occasional smokers who reported being very addicted were 2.93 times more likely to relapse (95%: 2.01, 4.28). The effect of PA was independent of other predictors of smoking behaviour.
Conclusions: For some, occasional smokers, smoking cessation is a difficult process that may require significant support. Asking occasional smokers about PA is an effective way to predict likely success in quitting smokers that may be easily assessed in population based, as well as in community and clinical, settings.
A new euarthropod from the Emu Bay Shale (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, is a rare component of this Konservat-Lagerstätte. The two known specimens of Eozetetes gemmelli gen. et sp. nov., in combination, depict a non-biomineralized euarthropod with a relatively short cephalic shield lacking dorsal eyes and bearing a flagelliform antenna, 18 trunk segments with broad tergopleurae and paired axial nodes/carinae, and an elongate, styliform tailspine. The new species compares most closely with taxa in the putative clade Vicissicaudata, which groups Aglaspidida, Cheloniellida and Xenopoda. A ring-like terminal tergite in E. gemmelli corresponds to the caudal tergite in cheloniellids and xenopodans. Incorporating Eozetetes into recent character sets for Cambrian euarthropods supports close affinities to either Emeraldella or to aglaspidids, but several plesiomorphic character states are inconsistent with membership in Aglaspidida sensu stricto. Eozetetes is among the earliest of various Cambrian taxa informally referred to as ‘aglaspidid-like euarthropods’.