To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Species richness is not evenly distributed across the tree of life and a limited number of lineages comprise an extraordinarily large number of species. In lichen-forming fungi, only two genera are known to be ‘ultradiverse’ (>500 species), with the most diverse genus, Xanthoparmelia, consisting of c. 820 species. While Australia and South Africa are known as current centres of diversity for Xanthoparmelia, it is not well known when and where this massive diversity arose. To better understand the geographical and temporal context of diversification in this diverse genus, we sampled 191 Xanthoparmelia specimens representing c. 124 species/species-level lineages from populations worldwide. From these specimens, we generated a multi-locus sequence data set using Sanger and high-throughput sequencing to reconstruct evolutionary relationships in Xanthoparmelia, estimate divergence times and reconstruct biogeographical histories in a maximum likelihood and Bayesian framework. This study corroborated the phylogenetic placement of several morphologically or chemically diverse taxa within Xanthoparmelia, such as Almbornia, Chondropsis, Karoowia, Namakwa, Neofuscelia, Omphalodiella, Paraparmelia, Placoparmelia and Xanthomaculina, in addition to improved phylogenetic resolution and reconstruction of previously unsampled lineages within Xanthoparmelia. Our data indicate that Xanthoparmelia most likely originated in Africa during the early Miocene, coinciding with global aridification and development of open habitats. Reconstructed biogeographical histories of Xanthoparmelia reveal diversification restricted to continents with infrequent intercontinental exchange by long-distance dispersal. While likely mechanisms by which Xanthoparmelia obtained strikingly high levels of species richness in Australia and South Africa remain uncertain, this study provides a framework for ongoing research into diverse lineages of lichen-forming fungi. Finally, our study highlights a novel approach for generating locus-specific molecular sequence data sets from high throughput metagenomic reads.
Three new species of Diploicia are described from the Galapagos Islands and a fourth, D. glebosa, is transferred from Pyxine; all four are considered endemic to the archipelago. In order to accommodate these species, the generic concept of Diploicia has been emended. Two of the species are sterile; D. leproidica is placodioid-leproid, where the thalli derive from pseudocorticate granules aggregating into small, placodioid rosettes with distinctly lobate margins. The second sterile species, D. squamulosa, forms scattered squamules that eventually aggregate into small, placodioid rosettes. The two fertile species, D. glebosa, with an olivaceous to beige, smooth, epruinose upper surface, and D. neotropica, with a white to grey-white, roughened, pruinose upper surface, form larger thalli typical of Diploicia, have apothecia that are initially lecideine, but are soon engulfed and hidden by a thick thalline margin. Anatomically the proper exciple remains visible for a considerable part of the ontogeny, although it eventually becomes almost completely reduced to a few pigmented or almost hyaline hyphae. This transition from lecideine to lecanorine apothecia is similar to the physciaeformis-type ontogeny observed in some Pyxine species. Several species currently accommodated in Buellia s. lat. with diploicin and effigurate thalli that lack distinctly lobate margins are discussed and the Socotran endemic Physcia endopyxinea is transferred into Diploicia.
Amandinea lobarica, a new corticolous lichen species, is described from high elevations in Guatemala. It is characterized by a thin, granulose, brownish thallus containing lobaric acid, small, convex lecideine apothecia, filiform conidia and large, narrowly ellipsoid ascospores with roughly ornamented walls. The new species is compared with other Buellia s. lat. taxa that possess rather large and strongly ornamented ascospores, such as Buellia hypothallina, here placed in synonymy with Gassicurtia vaccinii, Amandinea leucomela, A. mediospora, A. megaspora, A. subduplicata and five very closely related taxa treated here as belonging to the Amandinea incrustans group. Two tables summarizing the main differences between these species and a key are provided. New data on the chemistry of A. leucomela and a new record of A. montana for Guatemala are also included.
A new genus, Catenarina (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota), with three species is described from the Southern Hemisphere, supported by molecular data. All species contain the secondary metabolite 7-chlorocatenarin, previously unknown in lichens. Catenarinadesolata is a non-littoral, lichenicolous species found on volcanic and soft sedimentary rock at 190–300 m in and near steppes in southernmost Chile and on the subantarctic island, Kerguelen. Catenarina vivasiana grows on maritime rocks and on rock outcrops in lowland Nothofagus forests, but has also been found at altitudes up to c. 580 m on moss and detritus on outcrops in Tierra del Fuego. The Antarctic species Caloplaca iomma is transferred to Catenarina based on chemical data; it grows on rocks near the coast in maritime Antarctica.
As part of a comprehensive biodiversity inventory of Galapagos lichens, all species in two closely related genera, Cryptothecia and Herpothallon, are reviewed. Both genera are superficially similar, ecorticate, cottony-byssoid crusts and are unusual insofar as their asci do not develop in distinct ascomata, but instead within ascigerous areas or even solitary inside pseudisidia. Species of Herpothallon typically have an I− medulla and are covered in ecorticate pseudisidia; only a single species is known fertile. Cryptothecia is characterized by ascigerous areas with loosely aggregated asci. In some species the asci are isolated, but others have closely aggregated asci embedded in a hyphal matrix with some carbonization, perhaps indicating preliminary stages towards a development of true ascomata. Lirellate ascomata of the enigmatic, monotypic Helminthocarpon leprevostii show similarity with these ascigerous areas, especially of C. darwiniana and C. galapagoana, two species newly described here. Both also have similar asci and ascospores. As previously suggested, Helminthocarpon should thus not be included in Graphidaceae, but it belongs in Arthoniales, possibly in Arthoniaceae or Opegraphaceae. A key to all species and brief descriptions are provided. Two of the three Cryptothecia species and two of the seven Herpothallon species reported here are new to science. All records apart from Herpothallon rubrocinctum are new to Galapagos and Ecuador.
The foliicolous lichenized fungus Calopadia erythrocephala Farkas, Elix & Flakus, is described as new to science from the Atlantic submontane rainforests in Brazil. The species is very similar to C. puiggarii, but is distinguished by the presence of a red pigment in the campylidia, the darker apothecial discs and larger conidia. Fusarubin, the red pigment produced by the new species, is reported for the first time from foliicolous lichens. A world-wide key to foliicolous species of Calopadia with single, muriform ascospores is presented.
Diploschistes albopruinosus is described as new to science. This species is found on siliceous rocks in La Caldera de Taburiente National Park (La Palma, Canary Islands). A description of the species is given together with notes on its chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomy. Related lichen taxa are discussed.
Two new species, Lecanora hafelliana L. Lü, Y. Joshi & Hur and L. loekoesii Y. Joshi, L. Lü & Hur, are described as new to science from South Korea and eight species, L. campestris (Schaer.) Hue, L. cenisia Ach., L. nipponica H. Miyaw., L. perplexa Brodo, L. plumosa Müll. Arg., L. polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh., L. subrugosa Nyl. and L. sulcata (Hue) H. Miyaw., are recorded from South Korea for the first time. Lecanora hafelliana is characterized by the presence of hafellic acid, which is reported for the first time in this genus, while L. loekoesii is characterized by multispored asci and a thallus containing norstictic acid.
Amandinea myrticola is described as new from Portugal. This corticolous species is characterized by the thin, smooth to minutely rugose and greyish thallus lacking secondary metabolites, the small lecideine apothecia which exhibit a pseudothalline margin when young and the small, smooth, Physconia-type ascospores with strongly pronounced and persistent median wall thickenings. It occurs on smooth bark in two localities characterized by a Mediterranean climate with an Atlantic influence.
Lecanora sorediomarginata Rodrigues, Terrón & Elix sp. nov., described as new to science from Portugal, is characterized morphologically by a crustose whitish-grey to greenish thallus developing soralia from small, marginal warts and chemically by the presence of 3,5-dichloro-2′-O-methylnorstenosporic acid [major], 3,5-dichloro-2′-O-methylanziaic acid [minor], 3,5-dichloro-2′-O-methylnordivaricatic acid [minor], 5-chloro-2′-O-methylanziaic acid [trace], atranorin [minor], chloroatranorin [minor], and usnic acid [trace]. It is chemically similar to L. lividocinerea, to which it shows phylogenetic affinities based on ITS rDNA sequence analysis, and to L. sulphurella. Lecanora sorediomarginata is epiphytic on Pinus pinaster and P. pinea, in pine forests on sand dunes along the Portuguese coast.
Two new corticolous lichen species are described, Lepraria nothofagi Elix & Kukwa (atranorin, strepsilin, porphyrilic acid) from Argentina and L. stephaniana Elix, Flakus & Kukwa (4-O-methylleprolomin, zeorin, salazinic acid, unknown terpenoid) from pre-Andean Amazon forest of Bolivia. In addition, the paper presents new records of 16 species of Lepraria from South America. Lepraria adhaerens, and L. diffusa are new to the Southern Hemisphere; L. borealis is new to South America; L. alpina is new to Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela; L. caesioalba (chemotype I) is new to Venezuela, L. lobificans new to Argentina, L. pallida new to Peru, and L. sipmaniana new to Bolivia and Chile. The Chilean records of L. membranacea appeared to belong to L. sipmaniana. Therefore, the number of Lepraria spp. known at present from South America is enlarged to 27 species. 4-O-methylleprolomin is reported for the second time from lichens.
Well-developed ascospores of Rinodina flavosoralifera have been observed for the first time. The ascospores are described and illustrated and new data on the chemistry and distribution of this species are provided. New chorological data on Rinodina disjuncta are also included.
Buellia rhizocarpica is described from Mexico. This corticolous species is characterized by a yellowish, granulose thallus, the presence of rhizocarpic acid and an unknown pulvinic acid derivative, apothecia containing large amounts of micromera-green together with yellow crystals which react K+ pinkish and by the presence of very small, Buellia-type ascospores. It grows in a well-preserved Pinus hartwegii forest at c. 4000 m altitude at the base of the volcano Popocatepetl.
Herpothallon biacidum Frisch et al. is described from Queensland, tropical Australia. The new species is characterized by a thick byssoid thallus that is loosely attached to the substratum, globular to claviform to short cylindrical pseudoisidia, a brown to brownish black hypothallus, and by the presence of gyrophoric and norstictic acids. This is the first reported co-occurrence of gyrophoric and norstictic acids in the genus. The differences between H. biacidum and other species containing either norstictic acid or gyrophoric acid are discussed. Herpothallon biacidum is also compared with Cryptothecia eungellaeae. Both occur in north Queensland and have the same chemistry, but the latter has a closely adnate thallus and lacks the dark hypothallus and pseudoisidia. The circumscription of Herpothallon and its distinction from Cryptothecia are discussed.
Buellia nordinii, a new muscicolous or lignicolous species characterized by a blastidiate thallus containing atranorin, apothecia with a fine granular surface, markedly enlarged paraphyses tips and large triseptate ascospores is described from Venezuela. The species grows in very humid situations near the ground in open paramo vegetation at high elevations. It is compared with other known asexually reproducing and triseptate Buellia taxa.
Rinodina fuscoisidiata, a muscicolous isidiate species with large isidia and Pachysporaria-type ascospores is described from Venezuela. This species contains an unknown terpene as a major secondary metabolite in addition to traces of atranorin. It is compared with the four known isidiate Rinodina taxa.
Pertusaria aceroae and Pertusaria calderae from the Canary Islands are described as new to science. A description of each species is given together with notes on their chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomy. Related lichen taxa are discussed.
Fourteen genera belong to a monophyletic core of cetrarioid lichens, Ahtiana, Allocetraria, Arctocetraria, Cetraria, Cetrariella, Cetreliopsis, Flavocetraria, Kaernefeltia, Masonhalea, Nephromopsis, Tuckermanella, Tuckermannopsis, Usnocetraria and Vulpicida. A total of 71 samples representing 65 species (of 90 worldwide) and all type species of the genera are included in phylogentic analyses based on a complete ITS matrix and incomplete sets of group I intron, β-tubulin, GAPDH and mtSSU sequences. Eleven of the species included in the study are analysed phylogenetically for the first time, and of the 178 sequences, 67 are newly constructed. Two phylogenetic trees, one based solely on the complete ITS-matrix and a second based on total information, are similar, but not entirely identical. About half of the species are gathered in a strongly supported clade composed of the genera Allocetraria, Cetraria s. str., Cetrariella and Vulpicida. Arctocetraria, Cetreliopsis, Kaernefeltia and Tuckermanella are monophyletic genera, whereas Cetraria, Flavocetraria and Tuckermannopsis are polyphyletic. The taxonomy in current use is compared with the phylogenetic results, and future, probable or potential adjustments to the phylogeny are discussed. The single non-DNA character with a strong correlation to phylogeny based on DNA-sequences is conidial shape. The secondary chemistry of the poorly known species Cetraria annae is analyzed for the first time; the cortex contains usnic acid and atranorin, whereas isonephrosterinic, nephrosterinic, lichesterinic, protolichesterinic and squamatic acids occur in the medulla. Notes on the anatomy of Cetraria annae and Flavocetraria minuscula are also provided.
Loxospora lecanoriformis Lumbsch, A. W. Archer & Elix is described from deeply shaded trunks of Doryphora sassafras Endl. in temperate rainforest in north-eastern New South Wales. This species is characterized by large, lecanorine apothecia, mostly unbranched paraphyses, non-amyloid asci and large, thin-walled, simple, ellipsoid ascospores. Molecular data has established that this taxon is related to Loxospora ochrophaea (Tuck.) R. C. Harris.