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We present a photometric study of the stars in ionizing star clusters embedded in several giant H II regions of M33 (CC93, IC 142, NGC 595, MA2, NGC 604 and NGC 588). Our photometry is based on the HST-WFPC2 images of these clusters. Color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams of these clusters are obtained and are used for estimating the reddenings and ages of the clusters. The luminosity functions (LFs) and initial mass functions (IMFs) of the massive stars in these clusters are also derived. The slopes of the IMFs range from Γ = −0.5 to −2.1. Interestingly, it is found that the IMFs get steeper with increasing galactocentric distance and with decreasing [O/H] abundance.
Johns Hopkins has been a leader in paediatric cardiology for over 85 years. In the 1940s, Dr Helen Taussig began training fellows in paediatric cardiology at Johns Hopkins at a time when the diagnosis and treatment of CHD were in the earliest stage. Under her leadership, the fellowship developed a strong foundation that has continued to evolve to meet the current needs of learners and educators. In the current era, the Johns Hopkins programme implements the current theories of adult education and actively engages our fellows in learning as well as teaching. The programme uses techniques such as flipped classroom, structured case-based small-group learning, observed and structured clinical examination, simulations, and innovative educational technology. These strategies combined with our faculty and rich history give our fellows a unique educational experience.
Using 0.5 ps pulses of 5.9 eV light to excite electron-hole concentrations varied up to 2x1020 e-h/cm3 corresponding to energy deposition within electron tracks, we measure dipole-dipole quenching rate constants K2 in SrI2 and CsI. We previously reported determination of K2 directly from the time dependence of quenched STE luminescence in CsI. The nonlinear quenching rate decreases rapidly within a few tens of picoseconds as the host excitation density drops below the Förster threshold. In the present work, we measure the dependence of integrated light yield on excitation density in the activated scintillators SrI2:Eu2+ and CsI:Tl+. The “z-scan” method of yield vs. irradiance is applicable to a wider range of materials, e.g. when the quenching population is not the main light-emitting population. Furthermore, because of using an integrating sphere and photomultiplier for light detection, the signal-to-noise is substantially better than the time-resolved method using a streak camera. As a result, both 2nd and 3rd orders of quenching (dipole-dipole and Auger) can be distinguished. Detailed comparison of SrI2 and CsI is of fundamental importance to help understand why SrI2 achieves substantially better proportionality than CsI in scintillator applications. The laser measurements, in contrast to scintillation, allow evaluating the rate constants of nonlinear quenching in a population which has small enough spatial gradient to suppress the effect of carrier diffusion.
We have previously described a numerical model for carrier diffusion and nonlinear quenching in the track of an electron in a scintillator. Significant inequality of electron and hole mobilities predicts a characteristic “hump” in the light yield vs gamma energy, whereas low mobility of either or both carriers accentuates the universal roll-off due to nonlinear quenching at low gamma energy (high dE/dx). The material parameter basis of the two major trends in nonproportionality of scintillators can be related to the effective diffusion coefficient of excitations and the difference of electron and hole mobilities, respectively. Activator concentration, type of activator, and effect of transport anisotropy are associated with minor trends. The predicted trends are qualitatively consistent with empirical measures of nonproportionality including electron yield curves.
Polymerization occurring during fluorocarbon plasma treatment as a potential
method for pore sealing was investigated. CHF3 was used as a
reactant gas to expedite the rate of polymerization due to the presence of
hydrogen and the low C/F ratio. The reactor pressure was varied from 30mTorr
to 90mTorr to change the number of neutrals that act as the polymerizing
species. The films were exposed to the plasma for times of 1min, 3min, and 5
min to observe the penetration depth of neutrals and the thickness of
modified layer as a function of time. Dielectric constants were measured
before and after plasma treatment. The film morphology was investigated by
scanning electron microscopy before and after plasma treatment and a
featureless surface morphology was observed at 90mTorr on a 56% porosity
film. After plasma treatment, the average pore neck size decreases which may
help reduce metal precursor penetration during metallization.
Recently we reported on a method of preparing microcellular composite foams. In this procedure an open-celled polystyrene foam is prepared by the polymerization of a high-internal-phase water-in-oil emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene, surfactant, free-radical initiator and water. After drying, the cells of the polystyrene foam are then filled with other materials such as aerogel or resoles. The physical properties of these materials e.g., surface area, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive strength will be presented.
Surface modified silica xerogel films of high porosity (60 - 90 %) and uniform thickness (0.4–2 μm) were fabricated at ambient pressure on silicon and silicon dioxide. The rheological properties that govern film uniformity were determined. A relation between the final dried film thickness and spin speed was developed. The porosity and thickness of the films could be controlled independently. The same porosity could be obtained over a wide range of aging time and temperature combinations. Fracture toughness was measured using the edge-lift-off technique. The best values were comparable to concrete. Surface modification was affected by treating the film with trimethylcholorosilane (TMCS) and other modifiers. Moisture adsorption was studied at 100% RH using a quartz crystal microbalance technique. Depending upon the degree and kind of surface treatment, films absorbed as much as 32% or as little as 2% of their weight in water. Dielectric constants (K), losses and breakdown strengths were comparable to values for calcined, bulk aerogels. Thin (≤ 500 Å) films of Copper (Cu) and Tantalum (Ta) were deposited on xerogel films and subjected to thermal annealing. No diffusion was observed within the limits of RBS. High-density plasma etching showed that the films etch an order of magnitude faster than conventional SiO2 films.
A quantitative characterization of the thermal properties is required to assess the thermal performance of low dielectric constant materials. Recently we have developed a technique based on the 3-omega method for measuring the thermal conductivity of porous dielectric thin films. In this paper we present the results on the measurements of thermal conductivity of thin porous films using this method. A finite element method analysis is used to evaluate the approximations used in the measurement. Two porosity-weighted thermal resistor models are proposed to interpret the results. By studying the dependence of the thermal conductivity on porosity, we are able to discuss the scaling rule of thermal conductivity. Additionally, a steady state layered heater model is used for evaluating the significance of introducing porous ILDs into an interconnect structure.
The prospect of developing electronic and optoelectronic devices, including solar cells, that utilize the wide range of energy gaps of InGaN has led to a considerable research interest in the electronic and optical properties of InN and In-rich nitride alloys. Recently, significant progress has been achieved in the growth and doping of InGaN over the entire composition range. In this paper we present structural, optical, and electrical characterization results from InGaN films grown on Si (111) wafers. The films were grown over a large composition range by both molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the newly developed “energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography & epitaxy” (ENABLE) techniques. ENABLE utilizes a collimated beam of ∼2 eV nitrogen atoms as the active species which are reacted with thermally evaporated Ga and In metals. The technique provides a larger N atom flux compared to MBE and reduces the need for high substrate temperatures, making isothermal growth over the entire InGaN alloy composition range possible. Electrical characteristics of the junctions between n- and p-type InGaN films and n- and p-type Si substrates were measured and compared with theoretical predictions based on the band edge alignment between those two materials. The predicted existence of a low resistance tunnel junction between p-type Si and n-type InGaN was experimentally confirmed.
High-energy particle irradiation has been used to control the free electron concentration and electron mobility in InN by introducing native point defects that act as donors. A direct comparison between theoretical calculations and the experimental electron mobility suggests that scattering by triply-charged donor defects limits the mobility in irradiated samples across the entire range of electron concentrations studied. Thermal annealing of irradiated films in the temperature range 425°C to 475°C results in large increases in the electron mobility that approach the values predicted for singly-ionized donor defect scattering. It is suggested that the radiation-induced donor defects are stable, singly-charged nitrogen vacancies, and triply-charged, relaxed indium vacancy complexes that are removed by the annealing.
We report on a direct epitaxial growth approach for the heterogeneous integration of high speed III-V devices with Si CMOS logic on a common Si substrate. InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBTs) structures were successfully grown on patterned Si-on-Lattice-Engineered-Substrate (SOLES) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. DC and RF performance similar to those grown on lattice-matched InP were achieved in growth windows as small as 15×15μm2. This truly planar approach allows tight device placement with InP-HBTs to Si CMOS transistors separation as small as 2.5 μm, and the use of standard wafer level multilayer interconnects. A high speed, low power dissipation differential amplifier was designed and fabricated, demonstrating the feasibility of using this approach for high performance mixed signal circuits such as ADCs and DACs.