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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
We reject a widespread objectivism about kinds of evolutionary groups in favor of a new conventionalism. Surprisingly, being any one kind of evolutionary group typically depends on which of many incompatible values are taken by suppressed variables. This novel pluralism underlies almost any single evolutionary group concept, unlike familiar pluralisms claiming that multiple concepts of certain sorts are legitimate. Consequently, we must help objective facts determine which candidate evolutionary groups satisfy the definition of a given evolutionary group concept, regardless of whether we also help determine the legitimacy of that concept’s applications.
Aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major reservoir of reduced organic carbon and has a significant influence on heterotrophic biological productivity and water quality in marine and freshwater environments. Although the forms and transformations of DOM in temperate aquatic and soil environments have been studied extensively, this is not the case for glacial environments. In this study, fluorescent excitation–emission matrices (EEMs), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and cluster analysis were used to characterize the fluorescing components of DOM in ice and water samples from supraglacial, englacial, subglacial and proglacial environments of seven glaciers in the Canadian Arctic, Norway and Antarctica. At least five significant fluorescent DOM fractions were identified, which accounted for 98.2% of the variance in the dataset. These included four protein-like components and one humic-like component. The predominantly proteinaceous character of DOM from these glaciers is very different from the more humic character of DOM described previously from lacustrine, fluvial, estuarine and marine environments. DOM from the sampled glaciers is broadly similar in character despite their geographically distinct locations, different thermal regimes and inter- and intra-site differences in potential organic matter sources. Glacier ice samples had a relatively low ratio of humic-like :protein-like fluorescence while meltwater samples had a higher ratio.
Suicidal behaviors in young individuals represent an important public health problem. Understanding their natural history and relationships would therefore be of clinical and research value. In this study, we examined the natural histories of several suicidal behaviors and investigated two conceptual models of suicidality (dimensional and categorical) in the context of adolescent and adult-onset suicide attempts.
Participants were members of a prospectively studied, representative, population-based school cohort followed since age 6 (n=3017) through mid-adolescence (n=1715) to their early twenties (n=1684). Outcome measures included suicidal ideation, attempts and completions.
Approximately one in 500 individuals died by suicide. About 33% had suicidal ideas and 9·3% made at least one suicide attempt. Over half (4·9%) of the self-reported attempters made their first attempt before age 18. With the exception of current suicidal ideas, non-fatal suicidal behaviors were more prevalent in females. In general, parental and cross-sectional self-reports underestimated suicidality rates. Aikaike (AIC) and Bayesian (BIC) information criteria suggested the ordinal model, and dimensional conceptualization of suicide attempts of different onset age, to be more optimal than its multinomial/categorical counterpart (ordinal: AIC 567.55, BIC 635.67; multinomial: AIC 616.59, BIC 723.83). Both models, nevertheless, identified five common factors of relevance to suicidal diathesis: gender, disruptive disorders, childhood anxiousness and abuse, and suicidal thoughts.
Non-fatal suicidal behaviors in adolescents and young adults are more common than suggested by cross-sectional studies and parental reports. The dimensional model may be more useful in explaining the relationship of suicide attempts of different age of onset.
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