Cementitious reactions and ettringite formation, which occur when water is added to high-calcium fly ash, to many dry flue gas desulfurization solids, and to two of the residues from the emerging “clean coal” technologies, fluidized bed combustion and limestone injection multiphase burner, have been studied. The parameters varied included water to solid ratio and curing time. Crystalline reactants and products were monitored by X-ray powder diffraction. The amount of ettringite, the principal crystalline cementitious reaction product, was determined after three months of curing. Results are discussed in terms of available Ca, Al and S in each by-product and w/s ratio.