The Brazilian Amazon rain forest has lost c. 17% of its originally forested portion, due to deforestation and selective logging. Forest degradation caused by logging contributes to loss of animal species that require specialized habitats to survive, such as woodcreepers that inhabit understorey areas. Habitat associations of woodcreeper species can be important for identifying species that have restricted distribution and/or habitat specialization. Our study investigates the effects of spatial variation in forest structure and some landscape features (canopy openness, altitude, distance to stream and exploited basal area) on the abundance and composition of woodcreeper assemblage in selectively logged tropical forests in Southern Amazonia. We used mist-nets and points count to quantify the composition and abundance of woodcreepers in 32 plots in three sites. Plots were spatially arranged in PPBio LTER sites (long-term ecological research plots, systematically spaced at 1-km intervals) in Southern Amazonia. A total of 240 individuals (captured, observed and/or heard) belonging to 11 woodcreeper species were detected. Mantel tests showed that there is no spatial autocorrelation among woodcreeper assemblage and distance between plots. Altitude and canopy openness were significantly associated with the composition of the woodcreeper assemblage. Altitude was negatively associated with species richness, and the abundance of the two dominant species (Glyphorynchus spirurus and Xiphorhynchus elegans). The negative relationship with canopy openness suggests that woodcreeper assemblages that inhabit understorey are likely to be indirectly affected by selective logging which reduces canopy cover. The selective logging indirectly changes bird species assemblages, and depending on the intensity, may result in the local extinction of some insectivorous species. Short- and long-term studies addressing different intensities of selective logging are needed to determine the impacts on the bird species and forest structure.