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Providing appropriate care for adults with congenital heart disease requires the evaluation of their current situation. There is limited research in Iran about these patients, particularly in relation to gender differences in the demographic/socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as disease parameters.
Materials and methods
The sample consisted of 347 congenital heart disease patients in the age group of 18–64 years, including 181 women, assessed by an analytical cross-sectional study. The patients were recruited from the two major heart hospitals in Tehran. Data were collected using questionnaires.
The mean age of the patients was 33.24 years. Women were more often married and more often had offspring than men (p < 0.001). Educational level and annual income were similar between women and men. Unemployment was higher among women (p < 0.001), but financial strain was higher among men (p < 0.001). Smoking, alcohol, and water-pipe use was higher among men than among women (p < 0.001). Cardiac factors, for example number of cardiac defects, were similar among women and men, except that there were more hospitalisations owing to cardiac problems, for example arrhythmia, among men. Disease was diagnosed mostly at the hospital (57.4%). Most medical care was provided by cardiologists (65.1%). Only 50.1% of patients had knowledge about their type of cardiac defect.
Gender differences exist in the socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics of adults with congenital heart disease, in some cases related to the disease severity. Our findings also point to the need for interventions to increase patients’ knowledge about, and use of, healthier lifestyle behaviours, irrespective of gender. Furthermore, providing appropriate jobs, vocational training, and career counselling may help patients to be more productive.
Few studies have attempted to analyse the organisational aspects of the workplace that may affect the well-being of psychiatrists and even fewer have offered insights into what a positive workplace might look like. This study provides an outline of such a workplace, with reference to individual and organisational factors. In addition, a comparison is made between two European cities to check for cultural differences.
Three hundred and eighty psychiatrists from Stockholm and Birmingham responded to a previously tested questionnaire on their work environment.
Predictors of a positive workplace for psychiatrists were: high self-esteem, satisfactory support with work-related problems, lower perceived workload, positive view of leadership, low work-related exhaustion and having a sense of participation in the organisation. There were few cultural differences.
Measures should be taken to improve leadership skills for managers, to offer more support for work-related problems, and to allow psychiatrists to participate more in the organisation.
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