We examined human and ecological attributes of attacks by tigers Panthera tigris and leopards Panthera pardus on humans in and around the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in the Chandrapur District of central India to provide recommendations to prevent or mitigate conflicts between people and large carnivores. During 2005–2011 132 carnivore attacks on humans occurred, 71 (54%) of which were lethal to humans. Tigers and leopards were responsible for 78% and 22% of attacks, respectively. Significantly more victims were attacked while collecting minor forest products than during other activities. Probability of attack significantly decreased with increasing distance from forests and villages, and attacks occurred most frequently in the forested north-eastern corridor of the study area. Human activities near the Reserve need to be regulated and limited as much as possible to reduce human mortality and other conflicts. Increasing access to alternative fuel sources (e.g. biogas, solar) may reduce the pressure of timber harvesting on protected areas. Residents should be trained in identifying carnivore sign and in ways to reduce their vulnerability when working outdoors.