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Total skin electron beam therapy is a treatment option in patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) affecting a significant amount of the body surface. For patients with involvement of soles and interdigital folds, however, this approach is ineffective, requiring alternatives such as localised radiotherapy (RT). Although electron beams are well suited for superficial lesions, on irregular surfaces it provides inadequate tumour coverage and excess dose variance, requiring photon irradiation with tissue compensation.
We present the case of a patient with extensive cutaneous MF with skin lesions spread over both lower limbs and treated on these affected areas with photon beam RT. Long sheets of paraffin gauze dressings were used to create a 0·5-cm-thick bolus. The patient received a single fraction of 8 Gy. In vivo dosimetry using Gafchromic films was performed.
After 3 months, a complete response was achieved. In this case, paraffin gauze bolus proved to be an inexpensive, convenient, effective and flexible method for irregular superficial cancer irradiations.
Paraffin gauze bolus is a suitable option for irregular contours.
Vena caval filters remain as a useful tool in patients with deep vein thrombosis and contraindications to anticoagulation. Although they are rarely used in paediatric patients, they have been shown to be safe and effective when used in the inferior vena cava.
In this case report, we describe the off-label use of a retrievable vena caval filter in the superior vena cava in an adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with extensive thrombosis of the right upper neck veins as a means to reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism.
Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is a less invasive procedure to treat right outflow tract dysfunction related to surgical procedures such as repair of Tetralogy of Fallot. Despite the lower risks, complications have been reported, namely embolisation of the pre-stent. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy, whose procedure was complicated by embolisation of the pre-stents and the strategy used to reimplant them, prior to the successful implantation of a pulmonary valve.
We evaluate and demonstrate ultra-broadband near-infrared noncollinear optical parametric amplification in two nonlinear crystals, bismuth borate (BiBO) and yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB), which are not commonly used for this application. The spectral bandwidth is of the microjoule level; the amplified signal is ≥ 200 nm, capable of supporting sub-10 fs pulses. These results, supported by numerical simulations, show that these crystals have a great potential as nonlinear media in both low-energy, few-cycle systems and high peak power amplifiers for terawatt to petawatt systems based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (NOPCPA) or a hybrid.
Background: The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. Aims: Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias. Method: Participants with high vs low social anxiety and different personality structures viewed pairs of faces (free-viewing eye-tracking task) representing different emotions (anger, happiness and neutrality). Their eye movements were registered and analysed for both whole-trial (static) and time-dependent (dynamic) measures. Results: Comparisons between participants with high and low social anxiety levels did not yield evidence of differences in eye-tracking measures for the whole trial (latency of first fixation, first fixation direction, total dwell time), but the two groups differed in the time course of overt attention during the trial (dwell time across three successive time segments): participants with high social anxiety were slower in disengaging their attention from happy faces. Similar results were obtained using a full-sample, regression-based analysis. Conclusion: Our results speak in favour of a maintenance bias in social anxiety. Preliminary results indicated that personality structure may not affect the maintenance (dynamic) bias of socially anxious individuals, although depressive personality structures may favour manifestations of a (static) hypervigilance bias.
The Laboratory for Intense Lasers (L2I) is a research centre in optics and lasers dedicated to experimental research in high intensity laser science and technology and laser plasma interaction. Currently the laboratory is undergoing an upgrade with the goal of increasing the versatility of the laser systems available to the users, as well as increasing the pulse repetition rate. In this paper we review the current status of the laser research and development programme of this facility, namely the upgraded capability and the recent progress towards the installation of an ultrashort, diode-pumped OPCPA laser system.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a protein-free diet in the induction of food allergy and oral tolerance in BALB/c mice. The experimental model used was mice that were fed, since weaning up to adulthood, a balanced diet in which all dietary proteins were replaced by amino acid diet (Aa). The absence of dietary proteins did not prevent the development of food allergy to ovalbumin (OVA) in these mice. However, Aa-fed mice produced lower levels of IgE, secretory IgA and cytokines. In addition, when compared with mice from control group, Aa-fed mice had a milder aversive reaction to the allergen measured by consumption of OVA-containing solution and weight loss during food allergy development. In addition, mice that did not have dietary proteins in their diets were less susceptible to induction of oral tolerance. One single oral administration was not enough to suppress specific serum Ig and IgG1 levels in the Aa-fed group, although it was efficient to induce suppression in the control group. The present results indicate that the stimulation by dietary proteins alters both inflammatory reactivity and regulatory immune reactivity in mice probably due to their effect in the maturation of the immune system.
Coronary artery fistulae are uncommon but may be haemodynamically significant, being an incidental finding in 0.1–0.2% of coronary angiograms. Even rarer is the association between fistulae and non-atherosclerotic coronary artery aneurysms. They most frequently originate in the right coronary artery, and the right cardiac chambers are the most common draining chambers. Most children are asymptomatic, whereas those older than 20 years may present with signs of congestive heart failure, infective endocarditis, myocardial ischaemia, or aneurysm rupture. Management is either surgical or via percutaneous means. We report the case of a 5-year-old child referred for assessment of an asymptomatic cardiac murmur. The echocardiographic evaluation showed an enlarged right atrium, a fenestrated atrial septal defect, and a giant right coronary artery aneurysm with a fistulous tract that appeared to drain directly into the right atrium. Computed angiocardiac tomography and cardiac catherisation confirmed the presence of a large right coronary fistula originating from the right coronary aneurysm draining into the right atrium. The patient underwent surgical ligation of the fistula and the post-operative course has been uneventful. He is currently on double antiaggregation therapy.
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