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To assess food and nutrient intakes and compliance with nutritional recommendations in pregnant women according to selected sociodemographic characteristics.
Cross-sectional study based on data from the INMA-Valencia cohort (Spain), which recruited pregnant women between 2004 and 2005. Information on maternal sociodemographics and anthropometry was collected. Dietary intake was assessed through an FFQ. Intakes of foods were compared with Spanish food-based dietary guidelines. Intake inadequacy for nutrients was assessed using the Dietary Reference Intakes of the US Institute of Medicine.
We studied 822 pregnant women who had information on dietary intake during their first trimester of pregnancy.
More than 50 % of pregnant women did not meet the guidelines for cereals and legumes; reported intakes of carbohydrates, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were below recommendations and exceeded the total fat intake according to dietary references. Dietary inadequacy for folate, Fe and vitamin E ranged from 99 % to 68 %. Vegetable intake was related to age only. Younger and less educated women showed lower intakes of protein and n-3 fatty acids and higher intakes of trans-fatty acids as well as greater inadequacy for micronutrients. Spanish women reported lower intakes of fruit and carbohydrates and higher intakes of protein, total fat, SFA, MUFA and n-3 fatty acids compared with their foreign-born counterparts.
Women in the studied area have inadequate intakes of several nutrients relevant during pregnancy. Age, education and country of origin are factors significantly related to dietary intake and adequacy.
To estimate the association strength of dietary behaviour and sedentary habits in relation to childhood obesity in Spain.
A matched case–control study was carried out using data collected by sentinel network paediatricians in general practices.
Five Spanish autonomous communities.
Cases were 437 children (2–14 years old) with BMI >95th percentile according to Spanish reference tables. Controls were 751 children (2–14 years old; two paired per case) with BMI <84th percentile. Data were collected in two phases: individual (questionnaires filled in by sentinel paediatricians) and family (self-administered questionnaires filled in a family environment). Crude OR and adjusted OR (ORc and adj OR) for the given variables were calculated using a simple and multiple conditional logistic regression analysis.
The factors with the greatest effect on obesity were family history of obesity: both parents (adj OR = 11·2), mother but not father (adj OR = 9·1), father but not mother (adj OR = 6·1), siblings (adj OR = 2·7); and eating between meals (adj OR = 2·5) and consumption of sweets and soft drinks >2 times/week (adj OR = 2·0). The highest protection effect was found for five meals per day (adj OR = 0·5), the regular consumption of breakfast (adj OR = 0·5) and for eating fruit for dessert (adj OR = 0·6). Factors related to sedentary habits did not appear as noteworthy.
We have determined the association between certain dietary behaviour and family history with childhood obesity in several Spanish regions.
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