A study was undertaken of the seasonal abundance, feeding habits, resting habits and malaria infection rates of the sibling species Anopheles gambiae Giles and A. arabiensis Patton on the Kano Plain, Kenya, and the surrounding foothills. A. arabiensis was the dominant species on the plains and A. gambiae in the foothills. A. gambiae was highly anthropophilic with 92% feeding on man, whereas 59% of A. arabiensis fed on cattle. In both species, the choice of host was affected by the availability of cattle. A. arabiensis rested out of doors more commonly than A. gambiae. The sporozoite rate in A. gambiae was 5·33%, 15·98 times higher than the rate of 0·33% found in A. arabiensis.