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Chance discoveries of weapons, horse bones and human skeletal remains along the banks of the River Tollense led to a campaign of research which has identified them as the debris from a Bronze Age battle. The resources of war included horses, arrowheads and wooden clubs, and the dead had suffered blows indicating face-to-face combat. This surprisingly modern and decidedly vicious struggle took place over the swampy braided streams of the river in an area of settled, possibly coveted, territory. Washed along by the current, the bodies and weapons came to rest on a single alluvial surface.
A photoluminescence from a multiquantum GaN/InxGa1−xN/GaN well structure (x varies between 0.1 to 0.4) was investigated at various temperatures, pumping powers. While the temperature dependence of the peak position indicates normal band to band character of radiative recombination, the large pumping power induced “blue”shift of the peak position (up to 200 meV) can be observed. This kind of shift cannot be easily explained by the band tailing effect but is most likely the result of the screening of the strain-induced piezoelectric field. By evaluating the theoretical values of the piezoelectric filelds in the quantum well, we can show that in order to account for the experimental results we have to assume the partial relaxation of the strain.
The paper describes the influence of strain on the optical quality of GaN films grown by MBE on c-plane sapphire. The photoluminescence (PL) line width of the donor-bound exciton can be designed to be as narrow as 1.2 meV by actively utilizing hydrostatic and biaxial stress components. Unstrained p-type Mg-doped GaN films exhibit comparably narrow near band edge transitions. A sharp PL line at 3.261 eV in some of our films is identified as the donor bound exciton of the cubic phase. The formation of these cubic inclusions can be stimulated by a high III/V flux ratio at the growth temperature of T = 725°C. The PL spectrum of an InGaN multi quantum well structure is significantly broadened compared with the spectra of single quantum well structures. Combination of PL and TEM indicates that this effect relates to a progressive increase of the quantum well widths and their spacing along the growth direction. It is argued that strain affects the growth rate and the incorporation of Indium into the quantum well structures.
In this study, the causes of biaxial and hydrostatic stress components in epitaxially grown thin GaN films on sapphire are analyzed. It is observed that growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) are governed by very similar physical principles. Differences in the absolute stress values are mainly due to the difference in growth temperature. It is argued that in the case of MOCVD growth the onset of plasticity for higher growth temperatures is responsible for a larger stress relaxation in the buffer layer. It is further found that either process can result in highly off-stoichiometric GaN layers, as manifested by the large variations in the a and c lattice parameters caused by intrinsic point defects.
We report on results of low-temperature photoluminescence measurements performed on GaN films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on sapphire substrates. The GaN films are either Mg doped (p-type) or consist of a Mg-doped layer on top of a Si doped GaN layer (n-type). In the p-doped samples, the sharpness of the donor-acceptor-pair transition is striking, three phonon replicas are clearly resolved. A transition band occurs around 3.4 eV, which becomes dominant for samples with an np-layer structure. The position and the composition of the near band edge transitions are influenced by the growth of the buffer layers. Depending on the growth conditions a transition at 3.51 eV can be observed.
The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of two cast as well as two hot extruded Fe3Al-based iron aluminide alloys, either with or without Cr, is investigated. All four alloys contain microalloying additions of Zr, Nb, C and B. Fatigue tests were carried out under strain control for strain amplitudes in the range of εa = 0.1 – 0.4 % for the cast alloys and εa = 0.1 – 0.7 % for the extruded materials, at frequencies of 1 Hz (extruded Fe3Al) and 3 Hz (all other alloys) and at room temperature and 300 °C. Within the first cycles all alloys show strong cyclic hardening. Furthermore the fatigue strain – fatigue life curves are steeper at 300 °C than at room temperature, showing increased fatigue strength at low cycle numbers due to increasing ductility and decreased fatigue strength at increasing cycle numbers because of reduced yield strength. Cr is found to have only a negligible influence on the fatigue behaviour of Fe3Al-based alloys. Comparison between the differently processed materials shows superior LCF properties of the hot extruded iron aluminides due to significantly smaller grain sizes.